The Making of the West, Value Edition, Combined
Seventh EditionLynn Hunt; Thomas Martin; Barbara Rosenwein; Bonnie Smith©2022
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An affordable, chronological text that explains western civilization in a global context
Designed with students in mind, The Making of the West has all of the tools you will need to understand the cross-cultural, global exchanges that shaped Western history. Achieve for The Making of the West provides the most comprehensive set of tools to help you study, including an interactive e-textbook, adaptive quizzing, the companion reader Sources of The Making of the West, a variety of assessment and assignment options, and more.
Table of Contents
The Combined Volume includes all chapters.
Volume 1 includes Chapters 1-17.
Volume 2 includes Chapters 14-29.
NOTE: Achieve for The Making of the West 7e includes additional activities and assessments for the book content. Along with the interactive e-books for the main text and the companion source reader, Achieve provides quizzes for the source features in the book and the documents in the companion reader, LearningCurve adaptive quizzing, study and writing skills tutorials, and a variety of autograded exercises that help students develop their historical thinking skills. Many of these resources are set up for quick use in the pre-built courses in Achieve, which can be customized easily, and Achieve also allows instructors to create quiz questions and upload their own documents.
Preface: Why This Book This Way
Versions and Supplements
Maps, Figures, and Special Features
Authors’ Note: The b.c.e./c.e. Dating System
Early Western Civilization, 400,000–1000 b.c.e.
From the Stone Age to Near Eastern Civilization, 400,000–1000 b.c.e. b.c.e.
Life and Change in the Stone Age ■ The Emergence of Cities in the Near East, 4 –2350 b.c.e. ■ Metals and Empire Making: The Akkadians and the Ur III Dynasty, c. 2350–c. 2 b.c.e. ■ The Achievements of the Assyrians, the Babylonians, and the Canaanites, 2 –1 b.c.e.
Egypt, the First Unified Nation, 3050–1000 b.c.e.
From the Unification of Egypt to the Old Kingdom, 3050–2190 b.c.e. ■ The Middle and New Kingdoms in Egypt, 2061–1081 b.c.e.
The Hittites, the Minoans, and the Mycenaeans, 2200–1000 b.c.e.
The Hittites, 1750–1200 b.c.e. ■ The Minoans, 2200–1400 b.c.e. ■ The Mycenaeans, 1800–1 b.c.e. ■ The Violent End to Early Western Civilization, 1200–1 b.c.e.
Chapter 1 Review
Near East Empires and the Reemergence of Civilization in Greece, 1000–500 b.c.e.
From Dark Age to Empire in the Near East, 1000–500 b.c.e.
The New Empire of Assyria, 900–600 b.c.e. ■ The Neo-Babylonian Empire, 600–539 b.c.e. ■ The Persian Empire, 557–500 b.c.e. ■ The Israelites, Origins to 539 b.c.e.
The Reemergence of Greek Civilization, 1000–750 b.c.e.
The Greek Dark Age ■ The Values of the Olympic Games ■ Homer, Hesiod, and Divine Justice in Greek Myth
The Creation of the Greek City-State, 750–500 b.c.e.
The Physical Environment of the Greek City-State ■ Trade and "Colonization," 800–580 b.c.e. ■ Citizenship and Freedom in the Greek City-State
New Directions for the Greek City-State, 750–500 b.c.e.
Oligarchy in the City-State of Sparta, 700–500 b.c.e. ■ Tyranny in the City-State of Corinth, 657–585 b.c.e. ■ Democracy in the City-State of Athens, 700–500 b.c.e. ■ New Ways of Thought and Expression in Greece, 630–500 b.c.e.
Chapter 2 Review
The Greek Golden Age, c. 500–c. 400 b.c.e.
Wars between Persia and Greece, 499–479 b.c.e.
From the Ionian Revolt to the Battle of Marathon, 499–490 b.c.e. ■ The Great Persian Invasion, 480–479 b.c.e.
Athenian Confidence in the Golden Age, 478–431 b.c.e.
The Establishment of the Athenian Empire ■ Radical Democracy and Pericles’ Leadership, 461–431 b.c.e. ■ The Urban Landscape in Athens
Tradition and Innovation in Athens’s Golden Age
Religious Tradition in a Period of Change ■ Women, Slaves, and Metics ■ Innovative Ideas in Education and Philosophy ■ Transformations in Sculpture, History, and Medicine ■ The Development of Public Drama: Tragedy and Comedy
The End of Athens’s Golden Age, 431–403 b.c.e.
The Peloponnesian War, 431–404 b.c.e. ■ Athens Defeated: Tyranny and Civil War, 404–403 b.c.e.
Chapter 3 Review
From the Classical to the Hellenistic World, 400–30 b.c.e.
Classical Greece after the Peloponnesian War, 400–350 b.c.e.
Athens’s Recovery after the Peloponnesian War ■ The Execution of Socrates, 399 b.c.e. ■ The Philosophy of Plato ■ Aristotle, Scientist and Philosopher ■ Greek Political Disunity
The Rise of Macedonia, 359–323 b.c.e.
Macedonian Power and Philip II, 359–336 b.c.e. ■ The Rule of Alexander the Great, 336–323 b.c.e.
The Hellenistic Kingdoms, 323–30 b.c.e.
Creating New Kingdoms ■ The Layers of Hellenistic Society ■ The End of the Hellenistic Kingdoms
The Arts and Sciences under Royal Support ■ Philosophy for a New Age ■ Scientific Innovation ■ Cultural and Religious Transformations
Chapter 4 Review
The Rise of Rome and Its Republic, 753–44 b.c.e.
Roman Social and Religious Traditions
Roman Moral Values ■ The Patron-Client System ■ The Roman Family ■ Education for Public Life ■ Public and Private Religion
From Monarchy to Republic
Roman Society under the Kings, 753–509 b.c.e. ■ The Early Roman Republic, 509–287 b.c.e.
Roman Imperialism and Its Consequences
Expansion in Italy, 500–220 b.c.e. ■ Wars with Carthage and in the East, 264–121 b.c.e. ■ Greek Influence on Roman Literature and the Arts ■ Stresses on Society from Imperialism
Civil War and the Destruction of the Republic
The Gracchus Brothers and Violence in Politics, 133–121 b.c.e. ■ Marius and the Origin of Client Armies, 107–100 b.c.e. ■ Sulla and Civil War, 91–78 b.c.e. ■ Julius Caesar and the Collapse of the Republic, 83–44 b.c.e.
Chapter 5 Review
The Creation of the Roman Empire, 44 b.c.e.–284 c.e.
From Republic to Empire, 44 b.c.e.–14 c.e.
Civil War, 44–27 b.c.e. ■ The Creation of the Principate, 27 b.c.e.–14 c.e. ■ Daily Life in the Rome of Augustus ■ Changes in Education, Literature, and Art in Augustus’s Rome
Politics and Society in the Early Roman Empire
The Perpetuation of the Principate after Augustus, 14–180 c.e. ■ Life in the Roman Golden Age, 96–180 c.e.
The Emergence of Christianity in the Early Roman Empire
Jesus and His Teachings ■ Growth of a New Religion ■ Competing Religious Beliefs
From Stability to Crisis in the Third Century c.e.
Threats to the Northern and Eastern Frontiers of the Early Roman Empire ■ Uncontrolled Spending, Natural Disasters, and Political Crisis, 193–284 c.e.
Chapter 6 Review
The Transformation of the Roman Empire, 284–600 c.e.
From Principate to Dominate in the Late Roman Empire, 284–395
The Political Transformation and Division of the Roman Empire ■ The Social Consequences of Financial Pressures ■ From the Great Persecution to Religious Freedom
The Official Christianization of the Empire, 312–c. 540
Polytheism and Christianity in Competition ■ The Struggle for Clarification in Christian Belief ■ The Emergence of Christian Monks
Non-Roman Kingdoms in the Western Roman Empire, c. 370–550s
Non-Roman Migrations into the Western Roman Empire ■ Social and Cultural Transformation in the Western Roman Empire
The Roman Empire in the East, c. 500–565
Imperial Society in the Eastern Roman Empire ■ The Reign of Emperor Justinian, 527–565 ■ The Preservation of Classical Traditions in the Late Roman Empire
Chapter 7 Review
The Heirs of Rome: Islam, Byzantium, and Europe, 600–750
Islam: A New Religion and a New Empire
Nomads and City Dwellers ■ The Prophet Muhammad and the Faith of Islam ■ Growth of Islam, c. 610–632 ■ The Caliphs, Muhammad’s Successors, 632–750 ■ Peace and Prosperity in Islamic Lands
Wars on the Frontiers, c. 570–750 ■ From an Urban to a Rural Way of Life ■ New Military and Cultural Forms ■ Religion, Politics, and Iconoclasm
Western Europe: A Medley of Kingdoms
Frankish Kingdoms with Roman Roots ■ Economic Activity in a Peasant Society ■ The Powerful in Merovingian Society ■ Christianity and Classical Culture in the British Isles ■ Unity in Spain, Division in Italy ■ Political Tensions and the Power of the Pope
Chapter 8 Review
From Centralization to Fragmentation, 750–1050
The Byzantine Emperor and Local Elites
Imperial Power ■ The Macedonian Renaissance, c. 870–c. 1025 ■ The Dynatoi: A New Landowning Elite ■ The Formation of Eastern Europe and Kievan Rus
The Rise and Fall of the Abbasid Caliphate
The Abbasid Caliphate, 750–936 ■ Regional Diversity in Islamic Lands ■ Unity of Commerce and Language ■ The Islamic Renaissance, c. 790–c. 1050
The Carolingian Empire
The Rise of the Carolingians ■ Charlemagne and His Kingdom, 768–814 ■ The Carolingian Renaissance, c. 790–c. 900 ■ Charlemagne’s Successors, 814–911 ■ Land and Power ■ Viking, Muslim, and Magyar Invasions, c. 790–955
After the Carolingians: The Emergence of Local Rule
Public Power and Private Relationships ■ Warriors and Warfare ■ Efforts to Contain Violence ■ Political Communities in Italy, England, and France ■ Emperors and Kings in Central and Eastern Europe
Chapter 9 Review
Commercial Quickening and Religious Reform, 1050–1150
The Commercial Revolution
Fairs, Towns, and Cities ■ Organizing Crafts and Commerce ■ Communes: Self-Government for the Towns ■ The Commercial Revolution in the Countryside
Beginnings of Reform ■ The Gregorian Reform and the Investiture Conflict, 1075–1122 ■ The Sweep of Reform ■ New Monastic Orders of Poverty
Calling the Crusade ■ The First Crusade ■ The Crusader States ■ The Disastrous Second Crusade ■ The Long-Term Impact of the Crusades
The Revival of Monarchies
Reconstructing the Empire at Byzantium ■ England under Norman Rule ■ Praising the King of France ■ Surviving as Emperor
Chapter 10 Review
The Flowering of the Middle Ages, 1150–1215
New Schools and Churches
The New Learning and the Rise of the University ■ Architectural Style: From Romanesque to Gothic
Governments as Institutions
England: Unity through Common Law ■ France: Consolidation and Conquest ■ Germany: The Revived Monarchy of Frederick Barbarossa ■ Eastern Europe and Byzantium: Fragmenting Realms
The Growth of a Vernacular High Culture
The Troubadours: Poets of Love and Play ■ The Birth of Epic and Romance Literature
Religious Fervor and Crusade
New Religious Orders in the Cities ■ Disastrous Crusades to the Holy Land ■ Victorious Crusades in Europe and on Its Frontiers
Chapter 11 Review
The Medieval Synthesis — and Its Cracks, 1215–1340
The Church’s Mission
Innocent III and the Fourth Lateran Council ■ Inquisition ■ Lay Piety ■ Jews as Outcasts
Reconciling This World and the Next
The Achievements and Failures of Scholasticism ■ New Syntheses in Writing and Music ■ Gothic Art
The Politics of Control
The Weakening of the Empire ■ Louis IX and a New Ideal of Kingship ■ The Birth of Representative Institutions ■ The Weakening of the Papacy ■ The Rise of the Signori ■ The Mongol Takeover ■ The Great Famine
Chapter 12 Review
Crisis and Renaissance, 1340–1492
Crisis: Disease, War, and Schism
The Plague Comes to Europe ■ The Hundred Years’ War, 1337–1453 ■ The Ottoman Conquest of Constantinople, 1453 ■ The Great Schism, 1378–1417
The Renaissance: New Forms of Thought and Expression
Renaissance Humanism ■ The Arts
New Political Formations in Eastern Europe ■ Powerful States in Western Europe ■ Republics ■ The Tools of Power
Chapter 13 Review
Global Encounters and the Shock of the Reformation, 1492–1560
The Discovery of New Worlds
Portuguese Explorations ■ The Voyages of Columbus ■ A New Era in Slavery ■ Conquering the New World ■ The Columbian Exchange
The Protestant Reformation
The Invention of Printing ■ Popular Piety and Christian Humanism ■ Martin Luther’s Challenge ■ Protestantism Spreads and Divides ■ The Contested Church of England
Reshaping Society through Religion
Protestant Challenges to the Social Order ■ New Forms of Discipline ■ Catholic Renewal
Striving for Mastery
Courtiers and Princes ■ Dynastic Wars ■ Financing War ■ Divided Realms
Chapter 14 Review
Wars of Religion and the Clash of Worldviews, 1560–1648
Religious Conflicts Threaten State Power, 1560–1618
French Wars of Religion, 1562–1598 ■ Dutch Revolt against Spain ■ Elizabeth I’s Defense of English Protestantism ■ The Clash of Faiths and Empires in Eastern Europe
The Thirty Years’ War, 1618–1648
Origins and Course of the War ■ The Effects of Constant Fighting ■ The Peace of Westphalia, 1648
Economic Crisis and Realignment
From Growth to Recession ■ Consequences for Daily Life ■ The Economic Balance of Power
The Rise of Science and a Scientific Worldview
The Scientific Revolution ■ The Natural Laws of Politics ■ The Arts in an Age of Crisis ■ Magic and Witchcraft
Chapter 15 Review
Absolutism, Constitutionalism, and the Search for Order, 1640–1700
Louis XIV: Absolutism and Its Limits
The Fronde, 1648–1653 ■ Court Culture as an Element of Absolutism ■ Enforcing Religious Orthodoxy ■ Extending State Authority at Home and Abroad
Constitutionalism in England
England Turned Upside Down, 1642–1660 ■ Restoration and Revolution Again
■ Social Contract Theory: Hobbes and Locke
Outposts of Constitutionalism
The Dutch Republic ■ Freedom and Slavery in the New World
Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe
Poland-Lithuania Overwhelmed ■ Brandenburg-Prussia: Militaristic Absolutism ■ An Uneasy Balance: Austrian Habsburgs and Ottoman Turks ■ Russia: Setting the Foundations of Bureaucratic Absolutism
The Search for Order in Elite and Popular Culture
Freedom and Constraint in the Arts and Sciences ■ Women and Manners ■ Reforming Popular Culture
Chapter 16 Review
The Atlantic System and Its Consequences, 1700–1750
The Atlantic System and the World Economy
Slavery and the Atlantic System ■ World Trade and Settlement ■ The Birth of Consumer Society
New Social and Cultural Patterns
Agricultural Revolution ■ Social Life in the Cities ■ New Tastes in the Arts ■ Religious Revivals
Consolidation of the European State System
A New Power Alignment ■ British Rise and Dutch Decline ■ Russia’s Emergence as a European Power ■ Continuing Dynastic Struggles ■ The Power of Diplomacy and the Importance of Population
The Birth of the Enlightenment
Popularization of Science and Challenges to Religion ■ Travel Literature and the Challenge to Custom and Tradition ■ Raising the Woman Question
Chapter 17 Review
The Promise of Enlightenment, 1750–1789
The Enlightenment at Its Height
Men and Women of the Republic of Letters ■ Conflicts with Church and State ■ The Individual and Society ■ Spreading the Enlightenment ■ The Limits of Reason: Roots of Romanticism and Religious Revival
Society and Culture in an Age of Enlightenment
The Nobility’s Reassertion of Privilege ■ The Middle Class and the Making of a New Elite ■ Life on the Margins
State Power in an Era of Reform
War and Diplomacy ■ State-Sponsored Reform ■ Limits of Reform
Rebellions against State Power
Food Riots and Peasant Uprisings ■ Public Opinion and Political Opposition ■ Revolution in North America
Chapter 18 Review
The Cataclysm of Revolution, 1789–1799
The Revolutionary Wave, 1787–1789
Protesters in the Low Countries and Poland ■ Origins of the French Revolution, 1787–1789
From Monarchy to Republic, 1789–1793
The Revolution of Rights and Reason ■ The End of Monarchy
Terror and Resistance
Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety ■ The Republic of Virtue, 1793–1794 ■ Resisting the Revolution ■ The Fall of Robespierre and the End of the Terror
Revolution on the March
Arms and Conquests ■ Poland Extinguished, 1793–1795 ■ Revolution in the Colonies ■ Worldwide Reactions to Revolutionary Change
Chapter 19 Review
Napoleon and the Revolutionary Legacy, 1800–1830
The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte
A General Takes Over ■ From Republic to Empire ■ The New Paternalism: The Civil Code ■ Patronage of Science and Intellectual Life
"Europe Was at My Feet": Napoleon’s Conquests
The Grand Army and Its Victories, 1800–1807 ■ The Impact of French Victories ■ From Russian Winter to Final Defeat, 1812–1815
The "Restoration" of Europe
The Congress of Vienna, 1814–1815 ■ The Emergence of Conservatism ■ The Revival of Religion
Challenges to the Conservative Order
Romanticism ■ Political Revolts in the 1820s ■ Revolution and Reform, 1830–1832
Chapter 20 Review
Industrialization and Social Ferment, 1830–1850
The Industrial Revolution
Roots of Industrialization ■ Engines of Change ■ Urbanization and Its Consequences ■ Agricultural Perils and Prosperity
Reforming the Social Order
Cultural Responses to the Social Question ■ The Varieties of Social Reform ■ Abuses and Reforms Overseas
Ideologies and Political Movements
The Spell of Nationalism ■ Liberalism in Economics and Politics ■ Socialism and the Early Labor Movement
The Revolutions of 1848
The Hungry Forties ■ Another French Revolution ■ Nationalist Revolution in Italy ■ Revolt and Reaction in Central Europe ■ Aftermath to 1848: Reimposing Authority
Chapter 21 Review
Politics and Culture of the Nation-State, 1850–1870
The End of the Concert of Europe
Napoleon III and the Quest for French Glory ■ The Crimean War, 1853–1856: Turning Point in European Affairs ■ Reform in Russia
War and Nation Building
Cavour, Garibaldi, and the Process of Italian Unification ■ Bismarck and the Realpolitik of German Unification ■ Francis Joseph and the Creation of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy ■ Political Stability through Gradual Reform in Great Britain ■ Nation Building in North America
Nation Building through Social Order
Bringing Order to the Cities ■ Expanding Government Bureaucracy ■ Schooling and Professionalizing Society ■ Spreading National Power and Order beyond the West ■ Contesting the Nation-State’s Order at Home
The Culture of Social Order
The Arts Confront Social Reality ■ Religion and National Order ■ From the Natural Sciences to Social Science
Chapter 22 Review
Empire, Industry, and Everyday Life, 1870–1890
The New Imperialism
The Scramble for Africa — North and South ■ Imperializing Asia ■ Japan’s Imperial Agenda ■ The Paradoxes of Imperialism
The Industry of Empire
Industrial Innovation ■ Facing Economic Crisis ■ Revolution in Business Practices
Imperial Society and Culture
The "Best Circles" and the Expanding Middle Class ■ Working People’s Strategies ■ National Fitness: Reform, Sports, and Leisure ■ Artistic Responses to Empire and Industry
The Birth of Mass Politics
Workers, Politics, and Protest ■ Expanding Political Participation in Western Europe ■ Power Politics in Central and Eastern Europe
Chapter 23 Review
Modernity and the Road to War, 1890–1914
Public Debate over Private Life
Population Pressure ■ Reforming Marriage ■ New Women, New Men, and the Politics of Sexual Identity ■ Sciences of the Modern Self
Modernity and the Revolt in Ideas
The Opposition to Positivism ■ The Revolution in Science ■ Modern Art ■ The Revolt in Music and Dance
Growing Tensions in Mass Politics
The Expanding Power of Labor ■ Rights for Women and the Battle for Suffrage ■ Liberalism Tested ■ Anti-Semitism, Nationalism, and Zionism in Mass Politics
European Imperialism Challenged
The Trials of Empire ■ The Russian Empire Threatened ■ Growing Resistance to Colonial Domination
Roads to War
Competing Alliances and Clashing Ambitions ■ The Race to Arms ■ 1914: War Erupts
Chapter 24 Review
World War I and Its Aftermath, 1914–1929
The Great War, 1914–1918
Blueprints for War ■ The Battlefronts ■ The Home Front
Protest, Revolution, and War’s End, 1917–1918
War Protest ■ Revolution in Russia ■ Ending the War, 1918
The Search for Peace in an Era of Revolution
Europe in Turmoil ■ The Paris Peace Conference, 1919–1920 ■ Economic and Diplomatic Consequences of the Peace
A Decade of Recovery: Europe in the 1920s
Changes in the Political Landscape ■ Reconstructing the Economy ■ Restoring Society
Mass Culture and the Rise of Modern Dictators
Culture for the Masses ■ Cultural Debates over the Future ■ The Communist Utopia ■ Fascism on the March in Italy
Chapter 25 Review
The Great Depression and World War II, 1929–1945
The Great Depression
Economic Disaster Strikes ■ Social Effects of the Depression ■ The Great Depression beyond the West
The Rise of Stalinism ■ Hitler’s Rise to Power ■ The Nazification of German Politics ■ Nazi Racism
Democracies on the Defensive
Confronting the Economic Crisis ■ Cultural Visions in Hard Times
The Road to Global War
A Surge in Global Imperialism ■ The Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939 ■ Hitler’s Conquest of Central Europe, 1938–1939
World War II, 1939–1945
The German Onslaught ■ War Expands: The Pacific and Beyond ■ The War against Civilians ■ Societies at War ■ From Resistance to Allied Victory ■ An Uneasy Postwar Settlement
Chapter 26 Review
The Cold War and the Remaking of Europe, 1945–1960s
World Politics Transformed
Chaos in Europe ■ New Superpowers: The United States and the Soviet Union ■ Origins of the Cold War ■ The Division of Germany
Political and Economic Recovery in Europe
Dealing with Nazism ■ Rebirth of the West ■ The Welfare State: Common Ground East and West ■ Recovery in the East
Decolonization in a Cold War Climate
The End of Empire in Asia ■ The Struggle for Identity in the Middle East ■ New Nations in Africa ■ Newcomers Arrive in Europe
Daily Life and Culture in the Shadow of Nuclear War
Restoring "Western" Values ■ Cold War Consumerism and Shifting Gender Norms ■ The Culture of Cold War ■ The Atomic Brink
Chapter 27 Review
Postindustrial Society and the End of the Cold War Order, 1960s–1989
The Revolution in Technology
The Information Age: Television and Computers ■ The Space Age ■ The Nuclear Age ■ Revolutions in Biology and Reproductive Technology
Postindustrial Society and Culture
Multinational Corporations ■ The New Worker ■ The Boom in Education and Research ■ Changing Family Life and the Generation Gap ■ Art, Ideas, and Religion in a Technocratic Society
Protesting Cold War Conditions
Cracks in the Cold War Order ■ The Growth of Citizen Activism ■ 1968: Year of Crisis
The Testing of Superpower Domination and the End of the Cold War
A Changing Balance of World Power ■ The Western Bloc Meets Challenges with Reform ■ Collapse of Communism in the Soviet Bloc
Chapter 28 Review
A New Globalism, 1989 to the Present
Collapse of the Soviet Union and Its Aftermath
The Breakup of Yugoslavia ■ The Soviet Union Comes Apart ■ Toward a Market Economy
The Nation-State in a Global Age
Europe Looks beyond the Nation-State ■ Globalizing Cities and Fragmenting Nations ■ Global Organizations
An Interconnected World’s New Challenges
The Earth and Its People Threatened ■ North versus South? ■ Radical Islam Meets the West ■ Population, Health, and Disease ■ The Promise and Problems of a World Economy ■ International Politics and the New Russia
Global Culture and Society in the Twenty-First Century
Redefining the West: The Impact of Global Migration ■ Global Networks and Social Change ■ Global Culture versus Nationalist Isolationism
Chapter 29 Review
Glossary of Key Terms G-1
About the Authors