Showcasing literature as a living, changing art form, the Bedford Introduction to Literature not only provides you opportunities to improve your writing and critical reading, it also prepares you for the AP Literature Exam. Taking samples from classic works throughout history and from a variety of cultures, the text gives you many options to confidently work with literature. Special chapters take you deeper into the lives of particular authors and poets like Flannery O'Connor, Robert Frost, Dagoberto Gilb, Billy Collins, and Julia Alvarez, all with the hope you'll discover the connections between the literature you read and the world around you.
Table of Contents
[[Notes: New selections are marked with an asterisk]]Contents Resources for Reading and Writing about Literature Preface for Instructors INTRODUCTION: READING IMAGINATIVE LITERATUREThe Nature of Literature EMILY DICKINSON, A narrow Fellow in the Grass The Value of Literature The Changing Literary Canon FICTION The Elements of Fiction 1. Reading Fiction Reading Fiction Responsively KATE CHOPIN, The Story of an Hour A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Section of "The Story of an Hour" A SAMPLE PAPER: Differences in Responses to Kate Chopin’s "The Story of an Hour" Explorations and Formulas A COMPARISON OF TWO STORIES KAREN VAN DER ZEE, From A Secret Sorrow GAIL GODWIN, A Sorrowful Woman PERSPECTIVES KAY MUSSELL, Are Feminism and Romance Novels Mutually Exclusive? THOMAS JEFFERSON, On the Dangers of Reading Fiction 2. Writing about Fiction From Reading to Writing Questions for Responsive Reading and Writing A SAMPLE PAPER IN PROGRESS A First Response to A Secret Sorrow and "A Sorrowful Woman" Brainstorming A Sample Brainstorming List Revising: First and Second Drafts A Sample First Draft: Separate Sorrows A Sample Second Draft: Separate Sorrows Final Paper: Fulﬁllment or Failure? Marriage in A Secret Sorrow and "A Sorrowful Woman" 3. Plot EDGAR RICE BURROUGHS, From Tarzan of the Apes *ALICE WALKER, The FlowersA young girl’s innocent summer stroll comes to an abrupt end when she makes a dark discovery.WILLIAM FAULKNER, A Rose for Emily PERSPECTIVEWILLIAM FAULKNER, On "A Rose for Emily" A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Section of "A Rose for Emily" A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Conﬂict in the Plot of Faulkner’s "A Rose for Emily" ANDRE DUBUS, Killings PERSPECTIVEA. L. BADER, Nothing Happens in Modern Short Stories ENCOUNTERING FICTION: COMICS AND GRAPHIC STORIESEDWARD GOREY, From The Hapless Child4. Character CHARLES DICKENS, From Hard Times A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Character Development in Dickens’s Hard Times *JAMAICA KINCAID, GirlFrom a mother to a daughter: a demanding to-do list of how to be a perfect woman.MAY-LEE CHAI, Saving Sourdi HERMAN MELVILLE, Bartleby, the Scrivener PERSPECTIVES NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, On Herman Melville’s Philosophic Stance DAN McCALL, On the Lawyer’s Character in "Bartleby, the Scrivener" ENCOUNTERING FICTION: COMICS AND GRAPHIC STORIESLYNDA BARRY, Spelling5. Setting ERNEST HEMINGWAY, Soldier’s Home PERSPECTIVEERNEST HEMINGWAY, On What Every Writer Needs *F. SCOTT FITZGERALD, The Ice PalaceSally Carrol Happer of Tarleton, Georgia dreams of moving to the North to marry a Yankee. When she finally travels North in January to consider a new life with Harry Bellamy, tensions arise between the cultures and lifestyles of the North and the South. Can she survive the bitter cold? FAY WELDON, IND AFF, or Out of Love in Sarajevo PERSPECTIVEFAY WELDON, On the Importance of Place in "IND AFF" A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Signiﬁcance of Setting in Fay Weldon’s "IND AFF" 6. Point of View Third-Person Narrator First-Person Narrator JOHN UPDIKE, A&P*ALICE MUNRO, Wild SwansWith Flo’s seemingly exaggerated warnings in mind about the deviance and danger one may encounter in the world, Rose’s transformative experience aboard a train to Toronto causes her to feel, at once, both reluctance and desire.MAGGIE MITCHELL, It Would Be Different If ENCOUNTERING FICTION: COMICS AND GRAPHIC STORIESMARJANE SATRAPI, "The Trip," From Persepolis7. Symbolism TOBIAS WOLFF, That Room RALPH ELLISON, Battle Royal PERSPECTIVEMORDECAI MARCUS, What Is an Initiation Story? A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Section of "Battle Royal" A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Symbolism in Ellison’s "Battle Royal" MICHAEL OPPENHEIMER, The Paring KnifeDAGOBERTO GILB, Romero’s Shirt 8. Theme STEPHEN CRANE, The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky KATHERINE MANSFIELD, Miss Brill *XU XI, FamineA middle-aged Chinese woman, consumed by memories of her recently-deceased parents and their fears of hunger and poverty, takes an opulent trip to New York in hopes of forgetting her past. 9. Style, Tone, and Irony Style Tone Irony RAYMOND CARVER, Popular Mechanics PERSPECTIVEJOHN BARTH, On Minimalist Fiction A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Minimalist Style of Carver’s "Popular Mechanics" SUSAN MINOT, Lust RICK MOODY, Boys*GEOFF WYSS, How to Be a WinnerA sports consultant unwittingly recounts his own past in telling the story of loser-turned-winner Michael Wiltonberry to a football team he vows to turn into winners, too. ENCOUNTERING FICTION: COMICS AND GRAPHIC STORIESMATT GROENING, Life in Hell10. Combining the Elements of Fiction: A Writing Process The Elements Together Mapping the Story DAVID UPDIKE, Summer Questions for Writing: Developing a Topic into a Revised Thesis A Sample Brainstorming List A Sample First Thesis A Sample Revised Thesis A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Plot and Setting in David Updike’s "Summer" Approaches to Fiction 11. A Study of Nathaniel Hawthorne A Brief Biography and Introduction CHRONOLOGY NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, Young Goodman Brown NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, The Minister’s Black Veil NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, The Birthmark PERSPECTIVES ON HAWTHORNE NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, On Solitude NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, On the Power of the Writer’s Imagination NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, On His Short Stories HERMAN MELVILLE, On Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Tragic Vision GAYLORD BREWER, "The Joys of Secret Sin" 12. A Study of Flannery O’Connor A Brief Biography and Introduction CHRONOLOGY FLANNERY O’CONNOR, A Good Man Is Hard to Find FLANNERY O’CONNOR, Good Country People FLANNERY O’CONNOR, Revelation PERSPECTIVES ON O’CONNOR FLANNERY O’CONNOR, On the Use of Exaggeration and Distortion JOSEPHINE HENDIN, On O’Connor’s Refusal to "Do Pretty" CLAIRE KAHANE, The Function of Violence in O’Connor’s Fiction EDWARD KESSLER, On O’Connor’s Use of History TIME MAGAZINE, On "A Good Man is Hard to Find" 13. A Critical Case Study: William Faulkner’s "Barn Burning" WILLIAM FAULKNER, Barn Burning PERSPECTIVES ON FAULKNER JANE HILES, Blood Ties in "Barn Burning" BENJAMIN DEMOTT, Abner Snopes as a Victim of Class GAYLE EDWARD WILSON, Conﬂict in "Barn Burning" JAMES FERGUSON, Narrative Strategy in "Barn Burning" Questions for Writing: Incorporating the Critics A SAMPLE STUDENT PAPER: The Fires of Class Conﬂict in William Faulker’s "Barn Burning" (excerpt) 14. A Cultural Case Study: James Joyce’s "Eveline" A Brief Biography and Introduction CHRONOLOGY JAMES JOYCE, Eveline Documents THE ALLIANCE TEMPERANCE ALMANACK, On the Resources of IrelandBRIDGET BURKE, A Letter Home from an Irish Emigrant A Plot Synopsis of The Bohemian Girl 15. A Study of Dagoberto Gilb: The Author Reflects on Three StoriesA Brief Biography and An Introduction to His WorkCHRONOLOGYINTRODUCTION: DAGOBERTO GILB, How Books BounceSTORY: DAGOBERTO GILB: Love in L.A.ESSAY: On Writing Love in L.A.STORY: DAGOBERTO GILB: ShoutESSAY: On Writing ShoutSTORY: DAGOBERTO GILB: Uncle RockESSAY: On Writing Uncle RockPERSPECTIVESDAGOBERTO GILB, On Physical LaborDAGOBERTO GILB, On Distortions of Mexican American CultureINTERVIEW: Michael Meyer Interviews Dagoberto GilbFACSIMILIES: Two Draft Manuscript PagesSuggested Topics for Longer Papers16. A Thematic Case Study: WarMURIEL SPARK, The First Year of My LifeTIM O’BRIEN, How to Tell a True War Story*GAVIN FORD KOVITE, When Engaging Targets, RememberWhat decision do you make when all your choices will have life-changing consequences for you, your squad, and possibly innocent civilians? A vivid sketch of a scenario faced by a US infantryman in Iraq, contemplating the difficult, split-second decisions he has to make and the potential impact he’ll have to live with long after the war is over. *PHIL KLAY, RedeploymentA US Marine, having returned home to his wife and dog, works through memories of his deployment in Iraq and tries, with difficulty, to readjust to an everyday life that stands in stark contrast to his former life at war. 17. A Thematic Case Study: Humor and Satire ANNIE PROULX, 55 Miles to the Gas Pump JOYCE CAROL OATES, Hi Howya Doin’*RON HANSEN, My Kid’s DogA comical account of the great pains a father takes to covertly handle the death of his kid’s dog; a dog towards whom he always had a great animosity. MARK TWAIN, The Story of the Good Little Boy