First EditionDouglas M. Fraleigh; Joseph S. Tuman; Katherine L. Adams©2017
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Everything you need in a human communication text—substantive, engaging, and fun.
Let’s Communicate will help you develop the skills you need to excel at human communication, both in the classroom and in your everyday life, through its use of practical skills, a strong theoretical base, and real-life examples. With its focus on technology, culture, gender, and social justice, and through hundreds of hand-drawn illustrations, Let’s Communicate will get you hooked on the concepts of human communication, allowing you to apply your skills in school and beyond.
Table of Contents
1 Introduction to human communicationCommunication: The BasicsCommunication Defined Contexts for Communication Interpersonal CommunicationGroup CommunicationPublic SpeakingMass and Mediated CommunicationThe Importance of Effective Communication Benefits of Effective Communication Communication Helps in Your Personal LifeCommunication Helps in Your CareerCommunication Helps You as a StudentCommunication Helps You in Your CommunityGaining Communication Competence Achieving Communication GoalsBuilding a Communication RepertoireChoosing Appropriate Communication BehaviorsPrinciples of Communication Communication is a Transactional Process Communication is SymbolicCommunication Can Result in Shared Meaning Misconceptions About Communication Communication is not Just Common Sense Communication is not Always PositiveCommunication Does Not Always Result in Agreement Communication Cannot Solve Every Problem Chapter Review 2 PERCEIVING OTHERS, PERCEIVING OURSELVES
Perceiving Others The Meaning of PerceptionThe Role of Perception in CommunicationMaking the right communication choicesMaking a good impression on othersDeepening and strengthening our interactions.The Formation of PerceptionsReceiving StimuliUsing Mental Associations (Schemas) to Make Sense of StimuliSources of Mental AssociationsBarriers to Perception and How to Overcome Them Why are Perceptions Often Inaccurate Rush to JudgmentStereotypes Fooled by AppearancesShe Reminds Me of Aunt Minnie (Transference)Giving Ourselves the Benefit of the DoubtImproving the Accuracy of PerceptionsRecognize that Perceptions are FallibleSeek Additional DataDifferentiate Facts and InferencesCheck PerceptionsPerceiving Ourselves The Nature of Your Self-ConceptAttributes of Self-Concepts Self-Concept and Self-EsteemSources of Self-ConceptsReflected AppraisalsSociocultural and Gender ContextsImproving Your Self-ConceptPositive Self-TalkPersonal GrowthReappraisalSupport NetworksIdentity Management How We Engage in Identity Management Objectives of Identity Management Ethics and Identity ManagementOnline Identity Management Chapter Review
3 VERBAL COMMUNICATION
The Nature of Verbal Communication Language is Rule-BasedSemantic RulesSyntactic RulesPragmatic Rules Language is Symbolic Language is Literal and FigurativeLanguage is DynamicLanguage is Contextual Verbal Communication and the Challenge of Understanding Language is an Imperfect Vehicle for UnderstandingProblematic Language Exacerbates MisunderstandingsAbstract LanguageJargonImproper Use of WordsEquivocal Language The Effects of Verbal Communication Use of Language Sharing InformationInfluencing OthersExpressing FeelingsImaginingAccomplishing ActionsAbuses of Language Biased LanguageInflammatory LanguageGuidelines for Verbal Communication Make Your Message Clear Consider Your Listeners or ReadersUse Concise LanguageFocus on Concrete TermsCheck for UnderstandingMake Your Message Considerate Avoid Stereotypes Use Gender-Neutral Terms Make Appropriate References to Ethnic Groups Avoid Unnecessary References to Ethnicity, Religion, Gender, or Sexuality Appropriate Language and Political Correctness Make Your Responses Respectful Work for Accurate Understanding Respond with Respect Take Ownership of Your FeelingsChapter Review
Influences on Nonverbal Communication Culture GenderTechnology Functions of Nonverbal Communication Supplementing RepeatingContradictingRegulating Substituting Accenting Types of Nonverbal Communication KinesicsFacial Expressions Oculesics Haptics Proxemics Physical Appearance Paralanguage Smell (Olfacics) ChronemicsTechnology and its Impact on Nonverbal Communication Guidelines for Communicating Nonverbal Messages Effectively Chapter Review
5 LISTENING SKILLS
How We Listen Listening and Hearing Processing What You’ve HeardRetaining What You’ve Processed Listening Styles Action-Oriented Listening Content-Oriented Listening People-Oriented Listening Time-Oriented ListeningOvercoming Listening Challenges External Factors that Affect ListeningRate of DeliveryTime Physical LocationExternal NoiseThe Culprits Behind Poor Listening Information Overload Distracted ListeningInterruptive ListeningAgenda-Driven Listening Argumentative ListeningNervous ListeningBecoming a Better ListenerFilter Out DistractionsFocus on the Speaker Show That You are ListeningHelping Others to Listen to You Anticipate Ineffective Listening Before You Speak Consider Your Listeners’ Attention and Energy Levels Assess Your Audience’s Knowledge and AbilitiesFront- and Back-Load Your Main MessageUse Presentation Aids Strategically Encourage Active Listening Tailor Your Delivery Watch Out for Argumentative Listeners Watch Out for Defeated Listeners Watch Out for Superficial ListenersWhen You are the Listener Making a Speech Critique Giving Conversational Feedback Chapter Review
6 CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION
What is Culture?
Culture and Diversity Ethnicity, Race, and HeritageGender and Sexual OrientationAgeVariations in Culture: How Do They Affect Communication? Uncertainty Avoidance High and Low Context Collectivist and Individualistic Masculine and Feminine Contact and Non-Contact Understanding of Power DistanceAssimilation, Accommodation, and Separation Assimilation Accommodation SeparationChallenges to Intercultural CommunicationEthnocentrismPrejudiceHate and Hate SpeechConstructive Steps to Improving Intercultural CommunicationShow Awareness and Respect for Cultural Communication VariationsExpress a Willingness to Learn About and Participate in Other Cultures Limit Ethnocentrism and Condemn HateChapter Review
7 MASS AND MEDIATED COMMUNICATION
Understanding Mass Media Entertainment Media and News MediaOld Media and New MediaFree Media and Paid MediaUnderstanding Social Media Effects of Social Media Anonymity, Free Speech and Privacy Issues Digital Divide and Net NeutralityMedia-Centric Criticism Critical Media Theory Agenda-Setting and Framing TheorySuggestions for Mediated CommunicationBecome a Critical Consumer of Mass MediaAvoid Being Influenced by Media Depictions of "The Other"Be Mindful About How Much Personal Information You Share on Social MediaDon’t Say Anything Online You Wouldn’t Say in PersonConsider Taking a Break to Avoid Technology BurnoutChapter Review
8 PRINCIPLES OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Interpersonal Communication in the Dyad The Benefits of Interpersonal RelationshipsBelongingEmotional, Psychological, and Physical Well-BeingSelf-ExpressionReciprocal Altruism The Nature and Type of Close Dyads Friendships Work Peers Romantic and Marital RelationshipsSelecting a Few from the Many The Secrets of Attraction: Noticing Brain ChemistryProximitySimilarity The Secrets of Initiating: Opening Moves Introductions Managing First Impressions Small TalkCapturing Relational Movement The Straightforward Path The Turbulent Path Imagined Trajectories Cyclical TensionsSelf-Disclosure and PrivacySocial Penetration TheoryThe Downside to Self-DisclosureCommunication Privacy Management Theory (CPM) Privacy Rules Privacy ViolationsUnderstanding and Managing Dialectical TensionsDialectical Tensions Connection/Separation Openness/Closedness Predictability/NoveltyManaging Dialectical Tensions Separation Selection Balance ReframingChapter Review
9 PRACTICES FOR EFFECTIVE INTERPSONAL RELATIONSHIPS
Maintaining Relationships Common Maintenance BehaviorsMaintaining Relationships with TechnologyMaintaining Different Types of Relationships Romantic RelationshipsPositivity and AssurancesSharing TasksSocial NetworksTechnology Friendships Positivity Sharing Activities Openness Cross-Sex Friends: Special Considerations Friends-with-Benefits: Special Considerations Workplace RelationshipsFive General Guidelines for Maintaining Relationships Embrace Your Agency Connecting Bids Taking Action Based on Knowledge Nurture Mutual Commitment Don’t Fear UncertaintyManaging Interpersonal Conflict What is Interpersonal Conflict? Common Causes of Conflict Behavior Relational Rules Personality Benefits of Interpersonal ConflictStyles and Patterns of ConflictSix Conflict Styles Competitive Fighting: Direct and Uncooperative Collaborating: Direct and Cooperative Compromising: Moderate Directness and Cooperation Yielding: Indirect and Cooperative Avoiding: Indirect Indirect Fighting: Indirect and Uncooperative Unhealthy Conflict Patterns Negative Reciprocity Common Couple Violence Demand-Withdrawal Cascading NegativityStaying Respectful, Strong, and Positive in ConflictAccept ConflictMonitor Your EmotionsExpress Criticisms Gently and RespectfullyEngage in Conflict with Positive ExpectationsKeep Positivity in Balance with NegativityChapter Review
10 PRINCIPLES OF GROUP COMMUNICATION
Small Group Characteristics Small Group CommunicationTypesGroup size Size and Complexity Size and StabilityAdvantages of Small Groups Diverse PerspectivesMultiple ResourcesCommitmentSmall Group Dynamics Small Group Roles Work Roles Social Roles Selfish Roles Group DevelopmentCultural Diversity Collectivist and Individualistic Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance High and Low Context Masculine and Feminine Mindful CommunicationSmall Group Communication in the Digital AgeTechnology for Group Meetings E-mail Text messaging Instant Messaging (IM) Video and Audio Conferencing Meeting ApplicationsElectronic Bulletin Board Services (BBS) and a Chat Room or Instant Relay Chat (IRC)Technology for Group Work and Document Sharing Guidelines for Using Technology for Group WorkEffective Participation in a Small GroupPrepare for Group MeetingsListen InteractivelyParticipate, Don’t DominateFulfill Your CommitmentsUse Technology to Your AdvantageEncourage a Positive Climate with Politeness and AuthenticityChapter Review
11 PROBLEM SOLVING AND LEADING A SMALL GROUP
Group Problem Solving Define the ProblemGenerate Possible SolutionsEstablish Criteria for SolutionsSelect the Best SolutionTips for Using Problem-Solving AgendasMake Sure Group Members Understand the TaskGetting Rid of RoadblocksCarefully Observe Your ProcessTechnology and Group Problem SolvingEffective Group Leadership Leaders versus Leadership Types of Leadership Leading in Virtual Groups Leadership ChallengesLeading Meetings and Managing Conflict Leading Meetings Address Procedural Needs Model the Behavior You Expect Facilitate Discussion Keep Members on TaskHelp Members Avoid GroupthinkFacilitate DecisionsAssess Meeting-to-Meeting EffectivenessManaging Conflict Refer to Ideas by Topic, Not the Person Manage Conflicts RespectfullyFocus on Tasks, Not DisagreementsManage Disruptive EmotionsChapter Review
12 PUBLIC SPEAKING: FIRST STEPS
Introduction to Public Speaking Why Study Public Speaking?In the WorkplaceIn School and Community SettingsOn Special OccasionsA Great TraditionKey Elements of Public Speaking Public Speaking Features Communication Between a Speaker and an Audience Public Speaking is Audience Centered Public Speaking Emphasizes the Spoken Word Public Speaking is Generally a Prepared PresentationThe Speech Preparation ProcessThe Classical Approach to Speech PreparationThe Benefits of an Organized Preparation PlanAudience Analysis The Importance of Audience Analysis Analyzing Situational Characteristics Audience Size Time Location (Forum)Incorporating Demographics Age Gender CompositionRace and EthnicitySexual OrientationReligious Orientation Seeking Common Ground Identifying Prior Exposure Has My Audience Heard This Message Before? Has My Audience Responded Positively to the Message? Why Did the Previous Message Fail?Topic SelectionDeveloping a Set of Potential Topics Research BrainstormingWord AssociationMind Mapping Selecting the Best Topic Consider the Assignment Consider the Audience Consider Your Own Knowledge and Interests Choose a Topic and Stick to ItRefining Your Topic Decide Your Rhetorical Purpose Narrow Your TopicDrafting Your Specific Purpose StatementDrafting Your Thesis StatementChapter Review
13 SPEECH CONTENT: RESEARCH, SUPPORTING MATERIALS, AND ETHICS
Researching Your Speech Creating a Research Plan Inventory Your Research Needs Find the Sources You Need Keep Track of Your SourcesEvaluating a Source’s Credibility ExpertiseObjectivityObservational CapacityRecencyConducting Library Research Books Periodicals Newspapers Government DocumentsUsing the Internet Benefits of Internet Research Disadvantages of Internet Research Participatory (or Social) Media Evaluating the Credibility of Online Sources Interview Research Prepare for Your Interview Set Up Your Interview Plan Your Interview Questions Conduct the InterviewPresenting Evidence in Your SpeechesSelecting and Using Supporting MaterialsUses of Supporting MaterialsTypes of Supporting Materials Examples Definitions Testimony Statistics Narratives AnalogiesGuidelines for Using Supporting MaterialsSpeech Ethics Communicating Truthfully Lying Half-Truths False Inference OmissionAcknowledging and Representing Others’ Work Avoid Plagiarism Properly Quote from Sources Acknowledge Others’ WorkChapter Review
14 ORGANIZING AND OUTLINING
Organizing the Body of Your SpeechSelecting Your Main PointsConsider Your Specific PurposeTake Your Audience into AccountSelect an Appropriate Number of Main PointsArranging Your Main Points Spatial Pattern Chronological Pattern Causal Pattern Comparison Pattern Categorical PatternOrganizing Your Supporting Materials Subordination and Coordination When a Subpoint Doesn’t FitUsing Organizing Words and Sentences Transitions Signposts Internal Preview and Internal SummariesIntroducing Your SpeechGain Audience Attention Tell a Story or Anecdote Signal Your Thesis Show Your Audience What’s in It for ThemEstablish Your CredibilityPreview Your Main PointsConcluding Your SpeechTransition to Your ConclusionSummarize Your Main PointsFinish with a Memorable Clincher Tie Your Clincher to the Introduction End with a Striking Sentence or Phrase Highlight Your Thesis Conclude with an Emotional Message End with a Story or AnecdoteOutlining Your Speech Two Stages of Outlining The Working Outline The Speaking Outline Creating Your Working Outline Outlining the Body of Your Speech Outlining Your Introduction Outlining Your Conclusion Creating a Bibliography Inserting the Title, Specific Purpose, or Thesis A Sample Working Outline Creating Your Speaking Outline Formatting Your Speaking Outline Elements of Your Speaking Outline A Sample Speaking OutlineChapter Review
15 DELIVERING YOUR SPEECH
Selecting the Right Mode of DeliveryReading from a ManuscriptMemorizing from a ManuscriptExtemporaneous: Speaking from an OutlineImpromptu: Speaking without PreparationUsing Vocal Delivery SkillsVolumeToneRate of DeliveryProjectionArticulationPronunciationPausingUsing Nonverbal Delivery SkillsEye ContactGesturesPhysical MovementProxemicsPersonal AppearancePresentation Aids Using Presentation Aids in Your Speech Presentation Aids Can Make Your Speech More Interesting Presentation Aids Can Simplify a Complex Topic Presentation Aids Can Help Your Audience Remember Your Speech Guidelines for Developing Presentation Aids Consider the Forum Consider Your Audience Make Sure Your Aids Support Your Points Keep Your Aids Simple and Clear Use Technology Wisely Rehearse with Your Presentation AidsUsing Presentation Aids During Your Speech Make Sure Everyone Can See and Hear Your Aids Control Audience Interaction with Your Aids Remember the Purpose of Your AidsChapter Review
16 INFORMATIVE SPEAKING
Techniques for Informing DefinitionExplanationDescriptionDemonstrationNarrativeTypes of Informative SpeechesObjectsIndividuals or GroupsEventsProcessesIdeasDeveloping Your Informative SpeechAnalyzing Your AudienceSelecting a TechniqueFocusing on Your Goal to InformClarifying and Simplifying Your Message Move from General to Specific Reduce the Quantity of Information You Present Make Complex Information Seem Familiar Use Presentation Aids Reiterate Your Message Repeat Your Message Chapter Review
17 PERSUASIVE SPEAKING
The Nature of a Persuasive SpeechPersuasive Speeches Attempt to Influence Audience Members Strengthen Audience Commitment Weaken Audience Commitment Promote Audience ActionPersuasive Speeches Advocate Fact, Value, or Policy ClaimsTailoring Your Persuasive Message to the AudienceAdapting to Audience DispositionAppealing to Your Audience’s NeedsConnecting to Your Listener’s ValuesDemonstrating How Your Audience BenefitsAcknowledging Listeners’ ReservationsBuilding Blocks of PersuasionEthos: Your Credibility as a Speaker Understanding the Elements of Credibility Building Your Credibility Avoiding Loss of Your CredibilityLogos: The Evidence and Reasoning Behind Your Message Using Evidence Using Reasoning Example Reasoning Comparison Reasoning Sign Reasoning Causal Reasoning Avoiding Logical Fallacies Hasty Generalization Causal Reasoning Errors Ad Populum Fallacy Straw Person Fallacy Slippery Slope FallacyPathos: Evoking Your Listener’s Emotions Using Emotional Appeals Ensuring Ethical Use of PathosOrganizing Your Persuasive Speech Criteria-Application Pattern Categorical Pattern Moore’s Motivated Sequence Problem-Cause-Solution Pattern