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# College Physics for the AP® Physics 1 Course

## Second EditionGay Stewart; Roger A. Freedman; Todd Ruskell; Philip R. Kesten

©2019^{®} Physics 1. Complete with AP Exam Tips, AP^{®} practice problems, and complete AP^{®} Practice Exams, *College Physics for the AP® Physics 1 Course* combines AP^{®} skills with exam prep for a college-level audience.

## Table of Contents

**Case Study: Laying the foundation for the successful study of physics**

Chapter 1 Introduction to Physics

1-1 Scientists use special practices to understand and describe the natural world

1-2 Success in physics requires well-developed problem-solving skills utilizing mathematical, graphical and reasoning skills

1-3 Scientists use simplifying models to make it possible to solve problems; “object” will be an important model in your studies

1-4 Measurements in physics are based on standard units of time, length, and mass

1-5 Correct use of significant digits helps keep track of uncertainties in numerical values and uncertainty impacts conclusions from experimental results

1-6 Dimensional analysis is a powerful way to check the results of a physics calculation

**Case Study: Kinematics**

Chapter 2 Linear Motion

2-1 Studying motion in a straight line is the first step in understanding physics

2-2 Constant velocity means moving at a constant speed without changing direction

2-3 Velocity is the rate of change of position, and acceleration is the rate of change of velocity

2-4 Constant acceleration means velocity changes at a steady (constant) rate

2-5 Solving straight-line motion problems: Constant acceleration

2-6 Objects falling freely near Earth’s surface have constant acceleration

**Chapter 3 Motion in Two or Three Dimensions**

3-1 The ideas of linear motion help us understand motion in two or three dimensions

3-2 A vector quantity has both a magnitude and a direction

3-3 Vectors can be described in terms of components

3-4 Velocity and acceleration are vector quantities

3-5 A projectile moves in a plane and has a constant acceleration

3-6 You can solve projectile motion problems using techniques learned for straight-line motion

**Case Study: Dynamics**

Chapter 4 Forces and Motion I: Newton’s Laws

4-1 How objects move is determined by their interactions with other objects, which can be described by forces

4-2 If a net external force is exerted on an object, the object accelerates

4-3 Mass and weight are distinct but related concepts

4-4 A free-body diagram is essential in solving any problem involving forces, making one relies upon center of mass

4-5 Newton’s third law relates the forces that two objects exert on each other

4-6 All problems involving forces can be solved using the same series of steps

**Chapter 5 Forces and Motion II: Applications**

5-1 We can use Newton’s laws in situations beyond those we have already studied

5-2 The static friction force changes magnitude to offset other applied forces

5-3 The kinetic friction force on a sliding object has a constant magnitude

5-4 Problems involving static and kinetic friction are like any other problem with forces

5-5 An object moving through air or water experiences a drag force

**Case Study: Circular Motion and Gravitation**

Chapter 6 Circular Motion and Gravitation

6-1 Gravitation is a force of universal importance; add circular motion and you are on your way to explaining the motion of the planets and stars

6-2 An object moving in a circle is accelerating even if its speed is constant

6-3 For an object in uniform circular motion, the net force exerted on the object points toward the center of the circle

6-4 Newton’s law of universal gravitation explains the orbit of the Moon, and gives us an opportunity to introduce to the concept of field

6-5 Newton’s law of universal gravitation begins to explain the orbits of planets and satellites

6-6 Apparent weight and what it means to be “weightless”

**Case Study: Energy**

Chapter 7 Energy and Conservation I: Foundations

7-1 The ideas of work and energy are intimately related, this relationship is based on a conservation principle

7-2 The work done on a moving object by a constant force depends on the magnitude and direction of the force

7-3 Newton’s second law applied to an object lets us determine a formula for kinetic energy and state the work-energy theorem for an object

7-4 The work-energy theorem can simplify many physics problems

7-5 The work-energy theorem is also valid for curved paths and varying forces, and, with a little more information, systems as well as objects

7-6 Potential energy is energy related to reversible changes in a system’s configuration

**Chapter 8 Energy and Conservation II: Applications and Extensions**

8-1 Total energy is always conserved, but it is only constant for a closed, isolated system

8-2 Choosing systems and considering multiple interactions, including nonconservative ones, is required in solving physics problems

8-3 Energy conservation is an important tool for solving a wide variety of problems

8-4 Power is the rate at which energy is transferred into or out of a system or converted within a system

8-5 Gravitational potential energy is much more general, and profound, than our approximation for near the surface of Earth

**Case Study: Momentum**

Chapter 9 Momentum, Collisions, and the Center of Mass

9-1 Newton’s third law helps lead us to the idea of momentum

9-2 Momentum is a vector that depends on an object’s mass and velocity

9-3 The total momentum of a system of objects is always conserved; it is constant for systems that are well approximated as closed and isolated

9-4 In an inelastic collision some of the mechanical energy is dissipated

9-5 In an elastic collision both momentum and mechanical energy are constant

9-6 What happens in a collision is related to the time the colliding objects are in contact

9-7 The center of mass of a system moves as though all of the system’s mass were concentrated there

**Case Study: Torque and Rotational Motion**

Chapter 10 Rotational motion I

10-1 Rotation is an important and ubiquitous kind of motion

10-2 An extended object’s rotational kinetic energy is related to its angular velocity and how its mass is distributed

10-3 An extended object’s rotational inertia depends on its mass distribution and the choice of rotation axis

10-4 Conservation of mechanical energy also applies to rotating extended objects

10-5 The equations for rotational kinematics are almost identical to those for linear motion

10-6 Torque is to rotation as force is to translation

10-7 The techniques used for solving problems with Newton’s second law also apply to rotation problems

**Chapter 11 Rotational motion II **11-1 Angular momentum and our next conservation law, conservation of angular momentum

11-2 Angular momentum is always conserved; it is constant when there is zero net torque exerted on a system

11-3 Rotational quantities such as torque are actually vectors

11-4 Newton’s law of universal gravitation along with gravitational potential energy and angular momentum explains Kepler’s laws for the orbits of planets and satellites

**Case Study: Simple Harmonic Motion**

Chapter 12 Oscillations and Simple Harmonic Motion

12-1 We live in a world of oscillations

12-2 Oscillations are caused by the interplay between a restoring force and inertia

12-3 An object changes length when under tensile or compressive stress; Hooke’s Law is a special case

12-4 The simplest form of oscillation occurs when the restoring force obeys Hooke’s law

12-5 Mechanical energy is conserved in simple harmonic motion

12-6 The motion of a pendulum is approximately simple harmonic

**Case Study: Mechanical Waves and Sound**

Chapter 13 Waves and Sound

13-1 Waves transport energy and momentum from place to place without transporting matter

13-2 Mechanical waves can be transverse, longitudinal, or a combination of these; their speed depends on the properties of the medium

13-3 Sinusoidal waves are related to simple harmonic motion

13-4 Waves pass through each other without changing shape; while they overlap, the net displacement is just the sum of that of the individual waves

13-5 A standing wave is caused by interference between waves traveling in opposite directions

13-6 Wind instruments, the human voice, and the human ear use standing sound waves

13-7 Two sound waves of slightly different frequencies produce beats

13-8 The frequency of a sound depends on the motion of the source and the listener

**Case Study: Electric Charge and Electric Force**

Chapter 14 Electrostatics: Electric Charge and Force

14-1 Electric forces and electric charges are all around you—and within you

14-2 Matter contains positive and negative electric charge, and charge is always conserved

14-3 Charge can flow freely in a conductor, but not in an insulator

14-4 Coulomb’s law describes the force between charged objects

14-5 Electric forces are the true cause of many other forces you experience

**Case Study: DC Circuits**

Chapter 15 DC Circuits

15-1 Life on Earth and our technological society are only possible because of charges in motion

15-2 Electric current equals the rate at which charge flows

15-3 The resistance to current flow through an object depends on the object’s resistivity and dimensions

15-4 Electric Energy (modified from 17-1 and 2, to just talk in terms of forces, not fields).

15-5 Electric potential difference between two points equals the change in electric potential energy per unit charge moved between those two points

15-6 Conservation of energy and conservation of charge make it possible to analyze electric circuits

15-7 The rate at which energy is produced or taken in by a circuit element depends on current and electric potential difference