The St. Martin's Handbook with 2021 MLA Update
Ninth EditionAndrea A. Lunsford©2021
Respects you as a writer. Helps you write better.
This ebook has been updated to provide you with the latest guidance on documenting sources in MLA style and follows the guidelines set forth in the MLA Handbook, 9th edition (April 2021).
The St. Martin’s Handbook includes strategies that help you think through your purpose, audience, genre, and discipline before and as you write--and emphasizes that good writing in every genre and medium always depends upon the choices a writer makes and why. Andrea Lunsford offers advice for completing academic assignments and for writing for social and civic purposes as well. The Handbook helps you edit your work, embrace the varieties of language you use, read critically, and use and cite sources. Based on new research with college writers, The Handbook also helps you see disagreement not as a barrier to communication but an opportunity for open-minded communication.
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Table of Contents
PART TWO—Critical Thinking and Argument 7. Reading Critically 8. Analyzing Arguments 9. Constructing Arguments
PART THREE—Doing Research and Using Sources 10. Preparing for a Research Project 11. Conducting Research 12. Evaluating Sources and Taking Notes 13. Integrating Sources into Your Writing 14. Acknowledging Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism 15. Writing a Research Project
PART FOUR—Designing and Performing Writing 16. Design for Writing 17. Oral and Multimedia Presentations 18. Communicating in Other Media PART FIVE—Academic and Professional Writing 19. Academic Work in Any Discipline 21. Writing for the Social Sciences 22. Writing for the Natural and Applied Sciences 23. Writing for Business 24. Essay Examinations 25. Portfolios 26. Writing to Make Something Happen in the World PART SIX—Effective Language 27. Writing to the World 28. Language That Builds Common Ground 29. Language Variety 30. Word Choice 31. Dictionaries, Vocabulary, and Spelling PART SEVEN—Documenting Sources 32. MLA Style 33. APA Style 34. Chicago Style 35. CSE Style PART EIGHT—Sentence Grammar 36. Grammatical Sentences 37. Clauses and Sentences 38. Nouns and Noun Phrases 39. Verbs 40. Verbs and Verb Phrases 41. Subject-Verb Agreement 42. Pronouns 43. Adjectives and Adverbs 44. Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases PART NINE—Sentence Clarity 45. Confusing Shifts 46. Parallelism 47. Comma Splices and Fused Sentences 48. Sentence Fragments 49. Modifier Placement 50. Consistent and Complete Structures PART TEN—Sentence Style 51. Concise writing 52. Coordination and Subordination 53. Sentence Variety 54. Memorable Prose PART ELEVEN—Punctuation 55. Commas 56. Semicolons 57. End Punctuation 58. Apostrophes 59. Quotation Marks 60. Other Punctuation Marks PART TWELVE—Mechanics 61. Capital Letters 62. Abbreviations and Numbers 63. Italics 64. Hyphens