Worlds of History, A High School Edition
Fifth EditionKevin Reilly©2013
Table of Contents
1. Prehistory and the Origins of Patriarchy: Gathering, Agricultural, and Urban Societies, 40,000-1000 B.C.E.
Thinking Historically: Thinking about History in Stages
1. Natalie Angier, Furs for Evening, But Cloth Was the Stone Age Standby, 1999
*2. Paleolithic and Neolithic Art from Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, c. 15,000-2,000 B.C.E.
Cave drawing from Lascaux, France, c. 15,000 B.C.E.
Rock carving from Tassili n’Ajjer, Algeria, c. 10,000 B.C.E.
Plaster head from Ain Ghazal, Jordan, c. 7000 B.C.E.
Neolithic vase from Gansu Province, China, c. 2000 B.C.E.
3. Marjorie Shostak, Nisa: The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman, 1981
4. Margaret Ehrenberg, Women in Prehistory, 1989
5. Catherine Clay, Chandrika Paul, and Christine Senecal, Women in the First Urban Communities, 2009
NOTE: Historical Context and Reflections sections appear in every chapter but have been omitted below for brevity.
2. The Urban Revolution and "Civilization": Ancient City Societies in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Peru, 3500-1000 B.C.E.
Thinking Historically: Distinguishing Primary and Secondary Sources
1. Kevin Reilly, Cities and Civilization, 1989
2. The Epic of Gilgamesh, c. 2700 B.C.E.
3. Hammurabi’s Code, c. 1800 B.C.E.
*4. The Tale of the Eloquent Peasant, c. 1850 B.C.E.
5. Images from Hunefer’s Book of the Dead, c. 1275 B.C.E.
Entering the Afterlife
The Hall of Ma’at
6 An Assyrian Law and a Palace Decree, c. 1100 B.C.E.
*7. Smithsonian, First City in the New World, 2003
3. Identity in Caste and Territorial Societies: Greece and India, 1000-300 B.C.E.
Thinking Historically: Interpreting Primary Sources in Light of a Secondary Source
1. William H. McNeill, Greek and Indian Civilization, 1971
2. The Rig Veda: Sacrifice as Creation, c. 1500-500 B.C.E.
3. The Upanishads: Karma and Reincarnation, c. 800-400 B.C.E.
4. The Upanishads: Brahman and Atman, c. 800-400 B.C.E.
5. The Bhagavad Gita: Caste and Self, c. 1500 B.C.E.
6. Aristotle, The Athenian Constitution: Territorial Sovereignty, c. 330 B.C.E.
7. Thucydides, The Funeral Oration of Pericles, 431 B.C.E.
8. Plato, The Republic, c. 360 B.C.E.
*4. Empire and Government: China and Rome, 300 B.C.E.–300 C.E.
*Thinking Historically: Making Comparisons
*1. Michael Loewe, The Government of the Qin and Han Empires, 2006
*2. Sima Qian, Biographies of Harsh Officials, 104-92 B.C.E.
3. Confucius, The Analects, c. 479-221 B.C.E.
4. Han Fei, Legalism, c. 230 B.C.E.
*5 A Record of the Debates on Salt and Iron, 81 B.E.E.
*6. Nicholas Purcell, Rome: The Arts of Government, 1988
*7. Cicero, Letter to His Brother Quintus, 60 B.C.E.
8.Correspondence between Pliny and Trajan, c. 112 C.E.
9. Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, c. 167 C.E.
5. Gender, Sex, and Love in Classical Societies: India, China, and the Mediterranean, 500 B.C.E.–200 C.E.
Thinking Historically: Asking about Author, Audience, and Agenda
1. Sarah Shaver Hughes and Brady Hughes, Women in the Classical Era, 2005
2. Ban Zhao, Lessons for Women, c. 100 C.E.
*3. Vatsyana, On the Conduct of Wives, Husbands, and Women of the Harem, c. 280-550 B.C.E.
4. Plato, The Symposium, c. 385 B.C.E.
5. Ovid, The Art of Love, 1 B.C.E.
*6. Depictions of Gender in Classical Societies, c. 500 B.C.E.-150 C.E.
Base of funerary kouros with six athletes, c. 500 B.C.E.
Pottery warrior from tomb of Chi’in Shih Hunag-Ti, 210 B.C.E.
Sundaranada helping Sundai dress, Kushan Period, Fifth Century B.C.E.
Portrait of a Fayum Woman with Large Gold Necklace, c. 150 C.E.
6. From Tribal to Universal Religion: Hindu-Buddhist and Judeo-Christian Traditions, 600 B.C.E.–100 C.E.
Thinking Historically: Detecting Change in Primary Sources
1. Hinduism: Svetasvatara Upanishad, c. 400 B.C.E.
2. Buddhism: Gotama’s Discovery, c. 500-100 B.C.E.
3. Buddhism and Caste, c. 500-100 B.C.E.
4. Mahayana Buddhism: The Lotus Sutra, c.100 C.E.
5. Judaism and the Bible: History, Laws, and Psalms, c. 1000 B.C.E.
6. Judaism and the Bible: Prophecy and Apocalypse, c. 1000 B.C.E.
7. The Christian Bible: Jesus According to Matthew, c. 70 C.E.
8. Paul, Letters, c. 50 B.C.E.
7. The Spread of Universal Religions: Afro-Eurasia, 100–1000 C.E.
Thinking Historically: Understanding Continuity and Change
*1. Shlomo Sand, The Invention of the Jewish People, 2009
2. Eusebius, Life of Constantine, c. 339
3. Christianity in China: The Nestorian Monument, 781
4. Buddhism in China: The Disposition of Error, Fifth or Sixth Century
5. Selections from the Qu’ran, Seventh Century
*6. Ibn Ishaq, The Life of Muhammad: Missions to Kings, Eighth Century
7. Peace Terms with Jerusalem, 636
8. The Epic of Sundiata, Thirteenth Century
*8. Trade, Travel, and Migrations: Eurasia, Africa, and the Pacific, 3000 BCE–1350 CE
*Thinking Historically: Sifting Factors
*1. Patrick Manning, Bantu, Aryan, and Polynesian Migrations, 2005
2. Lynda Norene Shaffer, Southernization, 1994
*3. Faxian, Travel on the Silk Road and Seas, ca. 400
* 4. Ibn Battuta, Travels, 1354
*5. Francesco Balducci Pegolotti, Merchant Handbook, 1343
9. Love, Sex, and Marriage: Medieval Europe and Asia, 400–1350
Thinking Historically: Analyzing Cultural Differences
1. Kevin Reilly, Love in Medieval Europe, India, and Japan, 1997
2. Ulrich von Liechtenstein, The Service of Ladies, 1255
3. Andreas Capellanus, The Art of Courtly Love, 1184-1186
* Procopius, The Secret History, c. 550
4. Kalidasa, Shakuntala , c. 400
5. Murasaki Shikibu, The Tale of Genji, c. 1000
6. Zhou Daguan, Sex in the City of Angkor, 1297
10. The First Crusade: Muslims, Christians, and Jews during the First Crusade, 1095–1099
Thinking Historically: Understanding Narrative and Different Points of View
1. Fulcher of Chartres, An Account of Pope Urban’s Speech at Clermont, c. 1100-1127
2. Chronicle of Solomon bar Simson, c. 1140
*3, Ibn al-Athir, Origins of the Crusade, c. 1231
4. Anna Comnena, The Alexiad, c. 1148
5. Fulcher of Chartres, The Siege of Antioch, c. 1100-1127
6. Ibn Al-Qalanisi, The Damascus Chronicle, 1159
7. Raymond of St. Giles, Count of Toulouse, The Capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders, 1099
8. Ibn al-Athir, The Conquest of Jerusalem, c. 1231
9. Letter from a Jewish Pilgrim in Egypt, 1100
11. Raiders of Steppe and Sea: Vikings and Mongols, Eurasia and the Atlantic, 900–1350
Thinking Historically: Distinguishing Historical Understanding from Moral Judgments
1. Gregory Guzman, Were the Barbarians a Negative or Positive Factor in Ancient and Medieval History? 1988
2. Ibn Fadlan, The Viking Rus, 922
3. Barry Cunliffe, The Western Vikings, 2001
4. Eirik’s Saga, c. 1260
5. Yvo of Narbona, The Mongols, 1243
6. The Secret History of the Mongols, c. 1240
*7. Ibn al-Athir, The Mongols, c. 1231
8. John of Plano Carpini, History of the Mongols, 1245-1250
12. The Black Death: Afro-Eurasia, 1346–1350
Thinking Historically: Considering Cause and Effect
1. Mark Wheelis, Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa, 2002
2. Gabriele de’ Mussis, Origins of the Black Death, c. 1348
3.Giovanni Boccaccio, The Plague in Florence: From The Decameron , c. 1350
4. Images of the Black Death, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Century
The Black Death, 1348
Flagellants, from a Fifteenth-Century Chronicle from Constance, Switzerland
The Burning of Jews in an Early Printed Woodcut
Francois de la Sarra, Tomb at La Sarraz, Switzerland, c.1390
5. Ahmad al-Maqrizi, The Plague in Cairo, Fifteenth Century
6. Michael W. Dols, The Comparative Communal Responses to the Black Death in Muslim and Christian Societies, 1974
13. On Cities: European, Chinese, Islamic, and Mexican Cities, 1000–1550
Thinking Historically: Evaluating a Comparative Thesis
1. Fernand Braudel, Towns and Cities, 1983
* 2. Organizing Self-Government in Ipswich, 1200
3. Gregorio Dati, Corporations and Community in Florence, Fourteenth Century
4. Marco Polo, On the City of Hangzhou, 1299
5. S. D. Goitein, Cairo: An Islamic City in Light of the Geniza, 1969
6. Bernal Diaz, Cities of Mexico, c. 1568
*7. Map of Aztec Capital and Gulf of Mexico, 1524
8. Images of Medieval Cities, Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries
City View of Florence, 1482
A Chinese City Along the River During the Qingming Festival
Siena in Effects of Good Government
14. Environment, Culture, and Technology: Europe, Asia, Oceania, and South America, 500–1500
Thinking Historically: Evaluating Grand Theories
1. Lynn White Jr., The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis, 1967
2. Image from a Cistercian Manuscript, Twelfth Century
3. Image from a French Calendar, Fifteenth Century
4. Image of a Chinese Feng-Shui Master, Nineteenth Century
5. Image of European Surveying Instruments, c. 1600
6. Jared Diamond, Easter Island’s End, 1995
*7 Terry L. Hunt, Rethinking the Fall of Easter, 2006
*8. J.R. McNeill, Sustainable Survival, 2010
*9. Simon Romero, Once Hidden by Forest, Carvings in Land Attest to Amazon’s Lost World, 2012
15. Overseas Expansion in the Early Modern Period: Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas, 1400-1600
Thinking Historically: Reading Primary and Secondary Sources
1. Nicholas D. Kristof, 1492: The Prequel, 1999
*2. Ma Huan, On Calicut, India
3. Journal of the First Voyage of Vasco da Gama, 1498
4. Christopher Columbus, Letter to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, 1493
5. Kirkpatrick Sale, The Conquest of Paradise, 1991
16. Atlantic World Encounters: Europeans, Americans, and Africans, 1500-1850
Thinking Historically: Comparing Primary Sources
1. Bernal Díaz, The Conquest of New Spain, c. 1560
2. The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico, c. 1540s
3. Bartolomeo de Las Casas, The Devastation of the Indies, 1555
4. European Views of Native Americans, Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century
5. Nzinga Mbemba, Appeal to the King of Portugal, 1526
6. Captain Thomas Phillips, Buying Slaves in 1693
*7. J. B. Romaigne, Journal of a Slave Ship Voyage, 1819
8. Images of African-American Slavery, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century
Buying Slaves in Africa, Late 1700s or Early 1800s
Plantation Work, Martinique, 1826
Slave Market, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1830s
Slaves Awaiting Sale, New Orleans, 1861
*9. Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Written by Herself, 1861
17. State and Religion: Asian, Islamic, and Christian States, 1500-1800
*Thinking Historically: Appreciating Context
1. Jonathan Spence, Emperor Kangxi on Religion, 1661-1722
2. Japanese Edicts Regulating Religion, 1645 and 1665
3. Bada’uni, Akbar and Religion, 1595
*4. Martin Luther, Sermon on Religion and the State, 1528-40
5. Benjamin J. Kaplan, European Faiths and States, 2007
*6. Remonstrance of the Inhabitants of the Town of Flushing to Governor Stuyvesant, 1657
18. Women, Marriage, and Family: China and Europe, 1600-1750
1. Family Instructions for the Miu Lineage, Late Sixteenth Century
*2. Pu Songling, The Lady Knight-Errant, 1679
*3. Qing Law Code on Marriage, 1644-1810
4. Anna Bijns, "Unyoked Is Best! Happy the Woman without a Man," 1567
*5. The Autobiography of Mrs. Alice Thornton, 1645-1657
*6. Diary of the Countess de Rochefort, 1689
*7. Court Case on Marriage in High Court of Aix, 1689
8. Mary Jo Maynes and Ann Waltner, Women and Marriage in Europe and China, 2001
19. The Scientific Revolution: Europe, the Ottoman Empire, China, Japan, and the Americas, 1600-1800
Thinking Historically: Distinguishing Change from Revolution
1. Jack Goldstone, Why Europe? 2009
2. Images of Anatomy, Fourteenth and Sixteenth Century
Skeleton Drawing, from the Latin Munich MS Codex, fourteenth century
Muscular System of a Man, from the Rudnitz Five-Figure Series, 1399
Woodcut of Muscles, from Vesalius, De humani corporis fabrica, 1543
Woodcut of a Skeleton, from Vesalius, De humani corporis fabrica, 1543
3. Isaac Newton, The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, 1687
4. Bonnie S. Anderson and Judith P. Zinsser, Women and Science, 1988
5. Lady Mary Wortley Montague, Letter on Turkish Smallpox Inoculation, 1717
6. Lynda Norene Shaffer, China, Technology, and Change, 1986-1987
7. Sugita Gempaku, A Dutch Anatomy Lesson in Japan, 1771
8. Benjamin Franklin, Letter on a Balloon Experiment in 1783
20. Enlightenment and Revolution: Europe, the Americas, and India, 1650-1850
Thinking Historically: Close Reading and Interpretation of Texts
1. David Hume, On Miracles, 1748
2. Jean Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract, 1762
3. The American Declaration of Independence, 1776
4. Abigail Adams and John Adams, Remember the Ladies, 1776
5. The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 1789
*6. Olympia de Gouges, French Declaration of Rights for Women, 1791
7. Toussaint L’Ouverture, Letter to the Directory, 1797
8. Simón Bolívar, A Constitution for Venezuela, 1819
9. Dipesh Chakrabarty, Compassion and the Enlightenment, 2000
21. Capitalism and the Industrial Revolution: Europe and the World, 1750-1900
Thinking Historically: Distinguishing Historical Processes
1. Arnold Pacey, Asia and the Industrial Revolution, 1990
2. Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, 1776
3. The Sadler Report of the House of Commons, 1832
4. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto, 1848
5. Peter N. Stearns, The Industrial Revolution outside the West, 1993
*6. Mary Antin, The Promised Land, 1894/1912
7. Italians in Two Worlds: An Immigrant’s Letters from Argentina, 1901
22. Colonized and Colonizers: Europeans in Africa and Asia, 1850-1930
Thinking Historically: Using Literature in History
1. George Orwell, Burmese Days, 1934
2. Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness, 1899
3. Chinua Achebe, An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, 1975
*4. Chinua Achebe, From Things Fall Apart, 1958
5. Rudyard Kipling, The White Man’s Burden, 1899
23. Westernization and Nationalism: Japan, India, and the West, 1820–1939
Thinking Historically: Appreciating Contradictions
*1. Theodore von Laue, From The World Revolution of Westernization, 1987
2. Fukuzawa Yukichi, Good-bye Asia, 1885
3. Images from Japan: Views of Westernization, Late Nineteenth Century
Monkey Show Dressing Room
The Exotic White Man
*4. Kakuzo Okakura, The Ideals of the East, 1905
*5. Rammohan Roy, Letter on Indian Education, 1823
6. Mohandas K. Gandhi, Hind Swaraj, 1921
7. Jawaharlal Nehru, Gandhi, 1936
24. World War I and Its Consequences: Europe and the World, 1914-1929
Thinking Historically: Understanding Causes and Consequences
*1. David Fromkin, Europe’s Last Summer, 2004
2. Erich Maria Remarque, All Quiet on the Western Front, 1929
3. World War I Propaganda Posters, 1915-1918
Recruiting Poster for U.S. Army
Italian Poster for National War Loan, 1917
Recruiting Poster for German Army, 1915-1916
Propaganda Poster, United States, 1916
German Appeal to Women: Gold for the War
English Appeal to Women: Munitions Work
"Your Bit Saves a Life"
4. Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est, 1917
5. Memories of Senegalese Soldiers, 1914-1918/1981-1999
6. V.I. Lenin, War and Revolution, 1917
*7. Rosa Luxemburg, The Problem of Dictatorship, 1918
8. Syrian Congress Memorandum, 1919
25. World War II and Mass Killing: Germany, the Soviet Union, Japan, and the United States, 1931-1945
Thinking Historically: Thinking about the Unthinkable
*1. Adolph Hitler, From Mein Kampf , 1926
2. Heinrich Himmler, Speech to the SS, 1943
3. Jean-François Steiner, Treblinka, 1967
4. Timothy Snyder, Holocaust: The Ignored Reality, 2009
*5. Dr. Robert Wilson, Letters from Nanking, 1945
6 President Truman, Announcement of the Dropping of an Atom Bomb on Hiroshima, 1945
7. Akihiro Takahashi, Memory of Hiroshima, 1945/1986
26. The Cold War and the Third World: Vietnam, Cuba, Argentina, and Afghanistan, 1945-1989
*Thinking Historically: Detecting Ideological Language
*1. Heonik Kwon, Origins of the Cold War, 2010
2. The Vietnamese Declaration of Independence, 1945
3. Edward Lansdale, Report on CIA Operations in Vietnam, 1954-1955
4. Time Magazine, Nikita Khrushchev: "We Will Bury You," 1956
*5 New York Times, Khrushchev Tirade Again Irks Envoys, November 19, 1956
*6. Welles Hangen, Pravda Modifies Khrushchev Slur, November 20, 1956
7. Soviet Telegram on Cuba, September 7, 1962
*8. U.S Government Meeting Transcript and Telegram on Military Coup in Argentina, 1976
9. Telephone Transcript: Soviet Premier and Afghan Prime Minister, 1979
*27. New Democracy Movements: Argentina, Soviet Union, South Africa, Egypt, China, and the United States, 1977 to the Present
*Thinking Historically: Using Connections and Context to Interpret the Past
*1. Hebe de Bonafini and Matilde Sánchez, The Madwomen at the Plaza de Mayo, 1977/2002
*2 Mikhail Gorbachev, Perestroika and Glasnost, 2000
*3. Nelson Mandela, Nobel Peace Prize Address, 1993
*4. Gene Sharp, From Dictatorship to Democracy, 2010
*5. Wael Ghonim, Revolution 2.0, 2012
*6. China’s "Charter 08," 2008
*7. Occupy Wall Street, 2011
28. Globalization: The World, 1990 to the Present
Thinking Historically: Understanding Process
1. Sherif Hetata, Dollarization, 1998
2. Philippe Legrain, Cultural Globalization is not Americanization, 2003
3. Miriam Ching Yoon Louie, Sweatshop Warriors: Immigrant Women Workers Take on the Global Factory, 2001
4. Benjamin Barber, Jihad vs. McWorld, 1995
*5. The World Bank, World Development Report: Gender and Development, 2012
6. Cartoons on Globalization, 2000s
"As an Illegal Immigrant"
"Help is on the Way, Dude"
"Cheap Chinese Textiles"
"Keep the Europeans Out"
"I Don’t Mean to Hurry You"
*New to this edition