Student's Guide to History
Thirteenth EditionJules R. Benjamin©2016
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This guide provides comprehensive coverage of the historian's research process - from formulating a research question to finding, evaluating, and working with sources of all types - written and nonwritten, in print and online. The writing process is explained thoroughly, and advice on creating a strong thesis and writing an effective paper culminate in a model student research paper. The appendixes point students to the most helpful research resources.
Table of Contents
PrefaceA Note to Students
Chapter 1 The Subject of History and How to Use ItWhat History Can Tell YouHow Historians WorkHow Historians ThinkApproaches to HistoryPhilosophies of HistoryHistoriographyFields of Historical ResearchHow You Can Use Your History SkillsPublic HistoryThe Private SectorChapter 2 Succeeding in Your History ClassKeeping Up with Reading AssignmentsNavigating a TextbookReading a TextbookTaking Notes in ClassGuidelines for Taking Lecture NotesFrom Class Lectures and PresentationsFrom Multimedia PresentationsTaking ExamsGuidelines for Writing In-Class Essay ExamsObjective and Short-Answer ExamsExample of a Short-Answer QuestionExample of an Identification QuestionExample of a Multiple-Choice QuestionIn-Class Essay Exams Composing Sample Questions Taking the Test Take-Home Essay Exams The Dangers of Plagiarism Classroom Participation Classroom Discussions Oral Presentations Guidelines for Speaking in Class Guidelines for Giving an Oral Presentation PowerPoint Presentations Group Work Chapter 3 Working with Different Types of Historical Evidence Primary Sources Secondary Sources When a Secondary Source Becomes a Primary Source Accessing Sources of Evidence in Print, in Person, and Online Reading Written Sources Guidelines for Working with Written Sources Primary TextsScholarly Articles Guidelines for Identifying Scholarly Articles Monographs Anthologies Literature "Reading" Nonwritten Sources Maps Guidelines for Interpreting Nonwritten SourcesStatistical Data Illustrations, Photographs, and Other Visual MaterialSound and Video Recordings ArtifactsGuidelines for Peer Reviewing Interactive Course Content Chapter 4 Evaluating and Interpreting Historical Evidence Evaluating SourcesEvaluating Secondary SourcesReviewing Secondary Sources for Basic InformationGuidelines for Evaluating Secondary SourcesReading Secondary Sources for Signs of BiasEvaluating Primary SourcesGuidelines for Evaluating Written Primary SourcesWritten Primary Sources Nonwritten Primary SourcesGuidelines for Evaluating Nonwritten Primary Sources Special Problems of Evaluating Web-Based Sources Evaluating Material Found on Web Sites Guidelines for Evaluating Web Sites Guidelines for Evaluating Material Found on Web Sites Documenting Web-Based Sources Interpreting Sources and Taking Notes Reading Your Sources Summarizing and Paraphrasing without Plagiarizing Summarizing Your Sources Paraphrasing Your Sources Quoting without Plagiarizing Organizing Your Notes Taking Notes on Note Cards Taking Notes on a Computer Photocopying, Downloading, or Printing Sources Avoiding Plagiarism Guidelines for Avoiding Plagiarism Plagiarism and Internet Sources Plagiarism and Group WorkChapter 5 Writing Assignments: From Source Analysis to Comparative CritiquesWriting about Primary Sources Single-Source Analysis Comparative Analysis Writing about Secondary Sources Book Reviews Guidelines for Writing a Book Review Article Critiques Comparative Reviews and Critiques Writing Short Essays Chapter 6 Building a History Essay: From Thesis to Conclusion Why Clear Writing Is Important Preparing to Write Examining Sources Drafting a Thesis Statement Creating a Writing Outline Drafting Your Essay A Clear Introduction A Cohesive Body Sentences: The Building Blocks of Writing Cohesive, Connected Paragraphs A Meaningful Conclusion Revising Your Essay Guidelines for Revising Your Essay Proofreading Your Essay The Danger of Plagiarism Chapter 7 Conducting Research in HistoryBeginning the Research ProcessChoosing a Topic Guidelines for the Research Process Narrowing Your Topic Formulating a Research Question Debatable Questions Narrow Questions Significant Questions Researchable Questions Developing a Thesis Planning a Research Strategy Budgeting Your Time and Staying Focused Keeping an Open Mind Maintaining a Working Bibliography Conducting Research Using the Library’s Online Catalog The Art of Searching Searching by Subject or by Keyword Searching by Author and by Title Locating Materials by Using Call Numbers Using Print and Electronic Reference Works The Problem of Wikipedia Atlases, Dictionaries, and Encyclopedias Subject Bibliographies Using Print and Electronic Periodical Databases Locating Articles in Scholarly Journals Guidelines for Using Periodical Databases Locating Articles in Magazines and Newspapers Searching for Primary Sources Primary Sources in Published Collections Primary Sources in Museum Archives Primary Sources on the Web Interviews as Primary Sources Using Internet Search Tools Searching Efficiently
Previewing Search ResultsChapter 8 Writing a Research Paper Asserting Your Thesis Why Your Paper Needs a Thesis What Makes a Thesis Effective Guidelines for Developing an Effective Thesis Organizing Your Evidence with a Writing Outline Writing the Text The Rough Draft Clear Writing: A Matter of Continuity Quotations: When and How to Use Them When to Quote Sources Directly How to Format Quotations Incorporating Visual Materials into Your Paper Guidelines for Incorporating Visuals When to Use Footnotes and Endnotes Revising and Rewriting Guidelines for Revising and Rewriting Chapter 9 Example of a Research Paper A Sample Research Paper How the Thesis Was Developed The Writing Outline for the Paper Formatting a Research Paper Sample Student Research Paper Chapter 10 Documenting Your Paper: How to Cite Sources in Chicago Style Formatting Footnotes and Endnotes Organizing a Bibliography Directory of Documentation Models for Notes and Bibliography Entries Documentation Models Overview of Notes Overview of Bibliography Entries Author Variations Books Guidelines for Citing Books Guidelines for Citing Letters in Published Collections Periodicals Guidelines for Citing Articles in Print Journals Guidelines for Citing Articles in Electronic Databases Public Documents Multimedia Sources Guidelines for Citing Information from Web Sites Other Published Sources Unpublished Sources Appendix A Resources for History Research Comprehensive Reference Databases Historical Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, and Atlases Historical Dictionaries — World Historical Dictionaries — United States Historical Encyclopedias — World Historical Encyclopedias — Europe Historical Encyclopedias — United States Historical Atlases — World Historical Atlases — United States Biography Collections and Databases International Biography Collections United States Biography CollectionsNewspaper Indexes and Databases Newspaper Indexes and Databases — General Newspaper Indexes and Databases — United States Periodical Indexes and Databases Magazine Indexes and Databases Journal Indexes and Databases Public Documents Public Documents — International Public Documents — Britain, Australia, and Canada Public Documents — United States Historical Statistics Historical Statistics — General Historical Statistics — National and Regional Historical Statistics — United States General Resources in World History Reference Works and Bibliographies Web Sites Specialized Resources in World History Ancient History Europe — General Europe — Medieval Europe — Early Modern Europe — Modern Britain — General Britain before 1800 Britain since 1800 Ireland and Scotland Eastern Europe Russia and the Soviet UnionAfricaMiddle East and North AfricaAsia — General South Asia — India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka China Japan and Korea Australia and New Zealand Latin America and the Caribbean Canada General Resources in United States History Reference Works and Bibliographies Web Sites Specialized Resources in United States History Regional, State, and Local Colonial, Revolutionary, and Early National, 1607–1800 Native American Slavery and the Civil War African American Women’s Immigrant and Ethnic Social and Cultural Political Foreign Relations, International, and War Science, Technology, Environment, and Medicine Labor, Business, Economic, and Urban Religious Appendix B Historical Sources in Your Own BackyardHow to Research Your Family History Sources for County and Local History Sources for Family History and Genealogical Research