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# Statistics: Concepts and Controversies

## Ninth EditionDavid S. Moore; WIlliam I Notz

©2017ISBN:9781464193026

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A bestselling introduction to statistical ideas and practice for the liberal arts statistics course.

*Statistics: Concepts and Controversies* (SCC) introduces liberal arts majors to statistical ideas—and shows you how to use those ideas to think about the statistical claims you see every day from polls, campaigns, advertising, public policy, and many different fields of study. The ultimate goal is to equip you with solid statistical reasoning skills that will help you understand the impact of statistics on all aspects of our lives. This edition offers a new section on big data, as well as a signature combination of engaging cases, real-life examples, and innovative media learning tools, all significantly updated. A variety of different types of exercises will help you test your understanding throughout.

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Learn More## Table of Contents

To the Teacher: Statistics as a Liberal Discipline

Applications Index

Prelude: Making Sense of Statistics

Statistics and You: What Lies ahead in This Book

About the Authors

**PART I Producing Data 1 Where Do Data Come From? **Case Study

Talking about data: individuals and variables

Observational studies

Sample surveys

Census

Experiments

Statistics in Summary

Link It

Case Study Evaluated

LaunchPad Online Resources

Check the Basics

Exploring the Web

**2 Samples, Good and Bad **Case Study How to sample badly Simple random samples Can you trust a sample? Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 2 Exercises Exploring the Web

**3 What Do Samples Tell Us? **Case Study From sample to population Sampling variability Margin of error and all that Confidence statements Sampling from large populations Statistical Controversies: Should Election Polls Be Banned? Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 3 Exercises Exploring the Web

4 Sample Surveys in the Real World

Case Study How sample surveys go wrong Sampling errors Nonsampling errors Wording questions How to live with nonsampling errors Sample design in the real world The challenge of Internet surveys Statistical Controversies: The Harris Online Poll Probability samples Questions to ask before you believe a poll Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 4 Exercises Exploring the Web

5 Experiments, Good and Bad

Case Study Talking about experiments How to experiment badly Randomized comparative experiments The logic of experimental design Statistical significance How to live with observational studies Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 5 Exercises Exploring the Web

6 Experiments in the Real World

Case Study Equal treatment for all Double-blind experiments Refusals, nonadherers, and dropouts Can we generalize? Experimental design in the real world Matched pairs and block designs Statistical Controversies: Is It or Isn’t It a Placebo? Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 6 Exercises Exploring the Web

7 Data Ethics

Case Study First principles Institutional review boards Informed consent Confidentiality Clinical trials Statistical Controversies: Hope for Sale? Behavioral and social science experiments Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 7 Exercises Exploring the Web

8 Measuring

Case Study Measurement basics Know your variables Measurements, valid and invalid Measurements, accurate and inaccurate Statistical

Controversies: SAT Exams in College Admissions Improving reliability, reducing bias Pity the poor psychologist Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 8 Exercises Exploring the Web

9 Do the Numbers Make Sense?

Case Study What didn’t they tell us? Are the numbers consistent with each other? Are the numbers plausible? Are the numbers too good to be true? Is the arithmetic right? Is there a hidden agenda? Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 9 Exercises Exploring the Web

Part I Review

Part I Summary Part I Review Exercises Part I Projects

PART II Organizing Data

10 Graphs, Good and Bad

Case Study Data tables Types of variables Pie charts and bar graphs Beware the pictogram Change over time: line graphs Watch those scales! Making good graphs Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 10 Exercises Exploring the Web

11 Displaying Distributions with Graphs

Case Study Histograms Interpreting histograms Stemplots Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 11 Exercises Exploring the Web

12 Describing Distributions with Numbers

Case Study Median and quartiles The five-number summary and boxplots Statistical Controversies: Income Inequality Mean and standard deviation

Choosing numerical descriptions Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 12 Exercises Exploring the Web

13 Normal Distributions

Case Study Density curves The center and variability of a density curve Normal distributions The 68–95–99.7 rule Standard scores Percentiles of Normal distributions* Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 13 Exercises Exploring the Web

14 Describing Relationships: Scatterplots and Correlation

Case Study Scatterplots Interpreting scatterplots Correlation Understanding correlation Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 14 Exercises Exploring the Web

15 Describing Relationships: Regression, Prediction, and Causation

Case Study Regression lines Regression equations Understanding prediction

Correlation and regression The question of causation Statistical Controversies: Gun Control and Crime Evidence for causation Correlation, prediction, and big data Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 15 Exercises Exploring the Web

16 The Consumer Price Index and Government Statistics

Case Study Index numbers Fixed market basket price indexes

Using the CPI Understanding the CPI Statistical Controversies: Does the CPI Overstate Inflation? The place of government statistics The question of social statistics Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 16 Exercises Exploring the Web

Part II Review

Part II Summary Part II Review Exercises Part II Projects

PART III Chance

17 Thinking about Chance

Case Study The idea of probability The ancient history of chance Myths about chance behavior Personal probabilities Probability and risk Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 17 Exercises Exploring the Web

18 Probability Models

Case Study Probability models Probability rules Probability and odds

Probability models for sampling Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study

Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 18 Exercises Exploring the Web

19 Simulation

Case Study Where do probabilities come from? Simulation basics Thinking about independence More elaborate simulations Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 19 Exercises Exploring the Web

20 The House Edge: Expected Values

Case Study Expected values The law of large numbers

Thinking about expected values Statistical Controversies: The State of

Legalized Gambling Finding expected values by simulation

Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 20 Exercises Exploring the Web

Part III Review

Part III Summary Part III Review Exercises Part III Projects

PART IV Inference

21 What Is a Confidence Interval?

Case Study Estimating Estimating with confidence Understanding confidence intervals More on confidence intervals for a population proportion∗ The sampling distribution of a sample mean∗ Confidence intervals for a population mean* Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 21 Exercises Exploring the Web

22 What Is a Test of Significance?

Case Study The reasoning of statistical tests of significance Hypotheses and P-values Statistical significance Calculating P-values∗ Tests for a population mean∗ Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 22 Exercises Exploring the Web

23 Use and Abuse of Statistical Inference

Case Study Using inference wisely The woes of significance tests The advantages of confidence intervals Significance at the 5% level isn’t magical Statistical Controversies: Should Hypothesis Tests Be Banned? Beware of searching for significance Inference as decision* Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 23 Exercises Exploring the Web

24 Two-Way Tables and the Chi-Square Test∗

Case Study Two-way tables Inference for a two-way table The chi-square test Using the chi-square test Simpson’s paradox Statistics in Summary Link It Case Study Evaluated LaunchPad Online Resources Check the Basics Chapter 24 Exercises Exploring the Web

Part IV Review

Part IV Summary Part IV Review Exercises Part IV Projects

Notes and Data Sources

Resolving the Controversy

Solutions to Now It’s Your Turn Exercises

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises

Index

Table A Random digits

Table B Percentiles of the Normal distributions