# Modern Physics

## Sixth EditionPaul A Tipler; Ralph Llewellyn

©2012For the intermediate-level course, the Sixth Edition of this widely used text takes modern physics textbooks to a higher level. With a flexible approach to accommodate the various ways of teaching the course (both one- and two-term tracks are easily covered), the authors recognize the audience and its need for updated coverage, mathematical rigor, and features to build and support student understanding.

Continued are the superb explanatory style, the up-to-date topical coverage, and the Web enhancements that gained earlier editions worldwide recognition. The Sixth Edition includes the discoveries that have further enlarged modern physics in the first decade of the new century, takes note of the evolution that is occurring in the teaching of physics in colleges and universities, and recognizes the growing role of modern physics in the biological sciences.

## Table of Contents

**PART 1 Relativity and Quantum Mechanics: The Foundations of Modern Physics**

**CHAPTER 1 Relativity**

1-1 The Experimental Basis of Relativity

1-2 Einstein’s Postulates

1-3 The Lorenz Transformation

1-4 Time Dilation and Length Contraction

1-5 The Doppler Effect

1-6 The Twin Paradox and Other Surprises

**CHAPTER 2 Relativity II**

2-1 Relativistic Momentum

2-2 Relativistic Energy

2-3 Mass/Energy Conversion and Binding Energy

2-4 Invariant Mass

2-5 General Relativity

**CHAPTER 3 Quantization of Charge, Light, and Energy**

3-1 Quantization of Electric Charge

3-2 Blackbody Radiation

3-3 The Photoelectric Effect

3-4 X Rays and the Compton Effect

**CHAPTER 4 The Nuclear Atom**

4-1 Atomic Spectra

4-2 Rutherford’s Nuclear Model

4-3 The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom

4-4 X-Ray Spectra

4-5 The Franck-Hertz Experiment

**CHAPTER 5 The Wavelike Properties of Particles**

5-1 The de Broglie Hypothesis

5-2 Measurements of Particle Wavelengths

5-3 Wave Packets

5-4 The Probabilistic Interpretation of the Wave Function

5-5 The Uncertainty Principle

5-6 Some Consequences of the Uncertainty Principle

5-7 Wave-Particle Duality

**CHAPTER 6 The Schrödinger Equation**

6-1 The Schrödinger Equation in One Dimension

6-2 The Infinite Square Well

6-3 The Finite Square Well

6-4 Expectation Values and Operators

6-5 The Simple Harmonic Oscillator

6-6 Reflection and Transmission of Waves

**CHAPTER 7 Atomic Physics**

7-1 The Schrödinger Equation in Three Dimensions

7-2 Quantization of Angular Momentum and Energy in the Hydrogen Atom

7-3 The Hydrogen Atom Wave Functions

7-4 Electron Spin

7-5 Total Angular Momentum and the Spin-Orbit Effect

7-6 The Schrödinger Equation for Two (or More)Particles

7-7 Ground States of Atoms: The Periodic Table

7-8 Excited States and Spectra of Alkali Atoms

**CHAPTER 8 Statistical Physics**

8-1 Classical Statistics: A Review

A Derivation of the Equipartition Theorem

8-2 Quantum Statistics

8-3 The Bose-Einstein Condensation

8-4 The Photon Gas: An Application of Bose-Einstein Statistics

8-5 Properties of a Fermion Gas

**PART 2 Applications of Quantum Mechanics and Relativity**

CHAPTER 9 Molecular Structure and Spectra

CHAPTER 9 Molecular Structure and Spectra

9-1 The Ionic Bond

9-2 The Covalent Bond

9-3 Other Bonding Mechanisms

9-4 Energy Levels and Spectra of Diatomic Molecules

9-5 Scattering, Absorption, and Stimulated Emission

9-6 Lasers and Masers

**CHAPTER 10 Solid State Physics**

10-1 The Structure of Solids

10-2 Classical Theory of Conduction

10-3 Free-Electron Gas in Metals

10-4 Quantum Theory of Conduction

10-5 Magnetism in Solids

10-6 Band Theory of Solids

10-7 Impurity Semiconductors

10-8 Semiconductor Junctions and Devices

10-9 Superconductivity

**CHAPTER 11 Nuclear Physics**

11-1 The Composition of the Nucleus

11-2 Ground-State Properties of Nuclei

11-3 Radioactivity

11-4 Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Decay

11-5 The Nuclear Force

11-6 The Shell Model

11-7 Nuclear Reactions

11-8 Fission and Fusion

11-9 Applications

**CHAPTER 12 Particle Physics**

12-1 Basic Concepts

12-2 Fundamental Interactions and the Force Carriers

12-3 Conservation Laws and Symmetries

12-4 The Standard Model

12-5 Beyond the Standard Model

**CHAPTER 13 Astrophysics and Cosmology**

13-1 The Sun

13-2 The Stars

13-3 The Evolution of Stars

13-4 Cataclysmic Events

13-5 Final States of Stars

13-6 Galaxies

13-7 Cosmology and Gravitation

13-8 Cosmology and the Evolution of the Universe

Appendix A Table of Atomic Masses

Appendix B Mathematical Aids

Appendix B1 Probability Integrals

Appendix B2 Binomial and Exponential Series

Appendix B3 Diagrams of Crystal Unit Cells

Appendix C Electron Configurations

Appendix D Fundamental Physical Constants

Appendix E Conversion Factors

Appendix F Nobel Laureates in Physics

Appendix B Mathematical Aids

Appendix B1 Probability Integrals

Appendix B2 Binomial and Exponential Series

Appendix B3 Diagrams of Crystal Unit Cells

Appendix C Electron Configurations

Appendix D Fundamental Physical Constants

Appendix E Conversion Factors

Appendix F Nobel Laureates in Physics

Answers

Index