LaunchPad for Practical Argument (Six-Month Access)
Third EditionNew Edition Available Laurie G. Kirszner; Stephen R. Mandell©2017
Argument made accessible.
A straightforward, full-color, accessible introduction to argumentative writing, Practical Argument employs an exercise-driven, step-by-step approach to get to the heart of what you need to understand argument. This book includes the essays and assignments you need in order to do your coursework.
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Table of Contents
Part 1—Understanding ArgumentAn Introduction to ArgumentRecognizing Arguments Why Instructors Assign Argument [box]Defining Argument What Kinds of Statements Are Not Debatable? [box]Arguments in Real LifeWinning and Losing ArgumentsThe Rhetorical SituationConsidering the WriterConsidering the PurposeConsidering the AudienceConsidering the QuestionConsidering the ContextLogos, Pathos, and Ethos The Appeal to Reason (logos) Logos in Action The Appeal to the Emotions (pathos) Pathos in Action The Appeal to Authority (ethos) Ethos in ActionThe Rhetorical Triangle1—The Four Pillars of ArgumentAT ISSUE: Is a College Education Worth the Money?The Elements of Argument Thesis Statement Evidence Refutation Concluding Statement Checklist: Does Your Argument Stand Up? Nia Tuckson, Why Foreign-Language Study Should Be Required [student essay] Andrew Herman, Raise the Drinking Age to Twenty-Five READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Is a College Education Worth the Money?*David Leonhardt, Is College Worth It? Clearly, New Data SayMarty Nemko, We Send Too Many Students to CollegeJennie Le, What Does It Mean to Be a College Grad?Dale Stephens, College Is a Waste of Time*Bridget Terry Long, College Is Worth It – Some of the Time*Mary C. Daly and Leila Bengali, Is It Still Worth Going to College?Tony Brummel, Practical Experience Trumps Fancy Degrees Part 2—Reading and Responding to Arguments2—Thinking and Reading CriticallyAT ISSUE: Do Violent Media Images Trigger Violent Behavior? Thinking Critically Using Critical-Thinking Skills [box]Reading Critically Guidelines for Reading Critically [box]Becoming an Active Reader Previewing Close Reading Comprehension Clues [box] Gerard Jones, Violent Media Is Good for Kids Highlighting Suggestions for Highlighting [box] John Leo, When Life Imitates Video [student highlighting] Annotating Checklist: Questions for Annotating John Leo, When Life Imitates Video [student annotations] Jessica Robbins, Don’t Withhold Violent Games *American Psychological Association, Violence in Mass MediaWriting a Critical Response Checklist: Questions for Critical Reading Katherine Choi, Response to "When Life Imitates Video" [student response] Template for Writing a Critical Response3—Decoding Visual ArgumentsAT ISSUE: Do Violent Media Images Trigger Violent Behavior? [continued] Thinking Critically about Visual Arguments Visuals versus Visual Arguments [box]Using Active Reading Strategies with Visual Arguments Comprehension Clues [box] Appeals: Logos, Pathos, and Ethos [box] Todd Davidson, Media Violence [visual] *Max Fisher, Gun-related murders and video game consumption [graphs] *Bob Engelhart, Violent Video Games [cartoon] Parenthood Library, Distribution of Language, Sex, and Violence Codes in PG-Rated Movies [chart] *Boy Playing a First Person Shooter Game [photograph] *Ways to Die in Children’s Cartoons [Chart] * Lauren Dazzara, Why Gaming Is a Positive Element in Life [Infographic] Highlighting and Annotating Visuals Rockstar North, Grand Theft Auto IV [advertisement] *Nate Londa, Silence the Violence [image] Responding Critically to Visual Arguments Checklist: Questions for Responding to Visual Arguments Jason Savona, Response to Grand Theft Auto IV [student response] Template for Responding to Visual Arguments4—Writing a Rhetorical AnalysisAT ISSUE: Is It Ethical to Buy Counterfeit Designer Merchandise?What Is a Rhetorical Analysis? Overview: "Letter from Birmingham Jail" by Martin Luther King Jr. [box]Considering the Rhetorical Situation Analyzing the Rhetorical Situation [box] The Writer Analyzing the Writer [box] The Writer’s Purpose Analyzing the Writer’s Purpose [box] The Writer’s Audience Analyzing the Writer’s Audience [box] The QuestionAnalyzing the Question [box] The Context Analyzing the Context [box]Considering the Means of Persuasion: Logos, Pathos, Ethos The Appeal to Reason (logos) The Appeal to the Emotions (pathos) The Appeal to Authority (ethos)Considering the Writer’s Rhetorical Strategies Thesis Organization Evidence Stylistic TechniquesAssessing the Argument Checklist: Preparing to Write a Rhetorical Analysis Sample Rhetorical Analysis Dana Thomas, Terror's Purse Strings Deniz Bilgutay, A Powerful Call to Action [student essay] Rajeev Ravisankar, Sweatshop Oppression Template for Writing a Rhetorical Analysis Nicholas D. Kristof, Where Sweatshops Are a Dream5—Understanding Logic and Recognizing Logical FallaciesAT ISSUE: How Free Should Free Speech Be? What Is Deductive Reasoning?Constructing Sound Syllogisms Syllogism with an Illogical Middle Term Syllogism with a Key Term Whose Meaning Shifts Syllogisms with Negative PremiseRecognizing Enthymemes Bumper-Sticker Thinking [box]Writing Deductive Arguments Crystal Sanchez, College Should Be for Everyone [student essay] What Is Inductive Reasoning? Reaching Inductive Conclusions [box]Making InferencesConstructing Strong Inductive Arguments Generalization Too Broad Insufficient Evidence Irrelevant Evidence Exceptions to the Rule Writing Inductive Arguments William Saletan, Please Do Not Feed the Humans Recognizing Logical Fallacies Begging the Question Circular Reasoning Weak Analogy Ad Hominem Fallacy (Personal Attack) Creating a Straw Man Hasty or Sweeping Generalization (Jumping to a Conclusion) Either/Or Fallacy (False Dilemma) Equivocation Red Herring Slippery Slope You Also (Tu Quoque) Appeal to Doubtful Authority Misuse of Statistics Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc (After This, Therefore Because of This) Non Sequitur (It Does Not Follow) Bandwagon Fallacy Patrick J. Buchanan, Immigration Time-Out READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: *How Free Should Free Speech Be? *Thane Rosenbaum, Should Neo-Nazis Be Allowed Free Speech? *Sol Stern, The Unfree Speech Movement*American Association of University Professors, On Freedom of Expression and Campus Speech Codes *Wendy Kaminer, Progressive Ideas Have Killed Free Speech on Campus *Judith Shulevitz, In College and Hiding from Scary Ideas *Eric Posner, Universities Are Right to Crack Down on Speech and BehaviorTemplate for Writing a Deductive ArgumentTemplate for Writing an Inductive Argument6—Rogerian Argument, Toulmin Logic, and Oral Arguments AT ISSUE: Is Online Education Better than Classroom Education?Understanding Rogerian ArgumentStructuring Rogerian ArgumentsWriting Rogerian Arguments Zoya Kahn, Why Cell Phones Do Not Belong in the Classroom [student essay] Understanding Toulmin LogicConstructing Toulmin ArgumentsWriting Toulmin Arguments Jen Davis, Competitive Cheerleaders Are Athletes [student essay] Understanding Oral ArgumentsPlanning an Oral ArgumentChecklist: Designing and Displaying Visuals Delivering Oral ArgumentsDealing with Nervousness [box]Composing an Oral Argument Chantee Steele, An Argument in Support of the "Gap Year" [student speech] READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Is Online Education Better Than Classroom Education? *CollegeDegreeSearch.net, The Evolution of Online Learning (Infographic) Chris Bustamante, The Risks and Rewards of Online Learning David Smith, Reliance on Online Materials Hinders Learning Potential for Students Elena Kadvany, Online Education Needs Connection John Crisp, Short Distance Learning *Scott Newstok, A Plea for Close Learning *Ray McNulty, Old Flames and New Beacons *Pete Rorabaugh, Trading Classroom Authority for Online Community Template for Writing a Rogerian ArgumentTemplate for Writing a Toulmin ArgumentPart 3—Writing an Argumentative Essay7—Planning, Drafting, and Revising an Argumentative Essay AT ISSUE: Should College Campuses Go Green?Choosing a Topic Topics to Avoid [box]Thinking about Your Topic Freewriting Brainstorming Clustering Informal OutlineDrafting a Thesis StatementUnderstanding Your Purpose and AudienceGathering Evidence Evaluating the Evidence in Your Sources Detecting Bias in Your Sources Using Analogies as Evidence [box]Refuting Opposing Arguments Strategies for Refuting Opposing ArgumentsRevising Your Thesis StatementStructuring Your Essay Supplying Background Information [box] Using Induction and Deduction Identifying a Strategy for Your Argument Constructing a Formal OutlineEstablishing Credibility Being Well-Informed Being Reasonable Being Fair Maintaining Your Credibility [box]Drafting Your Essay Suggested Transitions for Argument [box]GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Using ParallelismRevising Your Essay Asking QuestionsChecklist: Questions about Your Essay’s Purpose and AudienceChecklist: Questions about Your Essay’s Structure and StyleChecklist: Questions about Your Essay’s Supporting Evidence Using Outlines and Templates Getting Feedback Guidelines for Peer Review Adding VisualsPolishing Your Essay EditingGRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement ProofreadingGRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Contractions vs. Possessive Pronouns Choosing a Title Checking FormatShawn Holton, Going Green [student essay]Part 4—Using Sources to Support Your Argument8—Finding and Evaluating SourcesAT ISSUE: Is Technology a Serious Threat to Our Privacy?Finding Sources Finding Information in the Library Finding Information on the InternetEvaluating SourcesEvaluating Print Sources Nicholas Thompson, Bigger Brother: The Exponential Law of Privacy Loss USA Today Editorial Board, Time To Enact "Do Not Track" *Rebecca MacKinnon, Privacy and Facebook Evaluating Websites Using a Site’s URL to Assess Its Objectivity [box] Avoiding Confirmation Bias [box] *The Chronicle of Higher Education, Home Page [website] *Glamour Magazine, Home Page [website] *The Chronicle of Higher Education, About The Chronicle [website] *Glamour Magazine, About Glamour [website] *Jonathan Mahler, Who Spewed That Abuse? Anonymous Yik Yak App Isn’t Telling *Jennifer Golbeck, All Eyes on You *Craig Desson, My Creepy Instagram Map Knows Where I Live *Sharon Jayson, Is Online Dating Safe? *Sam Laird, Should Athletes Have Social Media Privacy? One Bill Says Yes9—Summarizing, Paraphrasing, Quoting, and Synthesizing SourcesAT ISSUE: Is Technology a Serious Threat to Our Privacy? (continued)Summarizing Sources When to Summarize [box] Summarizing Sources [box]Paraphrasing Sources When to Paraphrase [box] Paraphrasing Sources [box]Quoting Sources When to Quote [box] Quoting Sources [box] *Shelley Fralic, Don’t Fall for the Myths about Online PrivacyWorking Source Material into Your Argument Using Identifying Tags Template for Using Identifying Tags [box] Working Quotations into Your Sentences Distortin Quotations [box]Synthesizing Sources10—Documenting Sources: MLA Using Parenthetical ReferencesPreparing the Works-Cited List Periodicals Books Audiovisual Sources Internet Sources Legal Case Government DocumentMLA Paper Guidelines [box] Erin Blaine, Should Data Posted on Social Networking Sites Be "Fair Game" for Employers? [Model MLA Paper] 11—Using Sources ResponsiblyAT ISSUE: Where Should We Draw the Line with Plagiarism?Understanding Plagiarism Two Definitions of Plagiarism [box]Avoiding Unintentional Plagiarism Internet Sources and Plagiarism [box] Intentional Plagiarism [box]Knowing What to Document Loos Diallo, Plagiarism Policy [image] Austin American-Statesman, Cheaters Never Win Revising to Eliminate PlagiarismREADING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Where Should We Draw the Line with Plagiarism? Jack Shafer, Sidebar: Comparing the Copy Lawrence M. Hinman, How to Fight College Cheating Trip Gabriel, Plagiarism Lines Blur for Students in Digital Age Elizabeth Minkel, Too Hard Not to Cheat in the Internet Age? Richard A. Posner, The Truth about Plagiarism *Dylan Byers, Plagiarism and BuzzFeed’s Achilles’ Heel *K. Balibalos and J. Gopalakrishnan, OK or Not? *Dan Ariely, Essay Mills: A Coarse Lesson in Cheating Term Papers for Sale Advertisement [Web page] Template for Writing an Argument about Plagiarism Writing Assignments: Using Sources ResponsiblyPart 5— Strategies for Argument12—Definition Arguments AT ISSUE: Is Wikipedia a Legitimate Research Source?What Is a Definition Argument?Developing Definitions Dictionary Definitions (Formal Definitions) Extended Definitions Operational DefinitionsStructuring a Definition Argument Adam Kennedy, Why I Am a Nontraditional Student [student essay] GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Avoiding "Is Where" and "Is When" *Ej Garr, Athlete vs. Role Model Firefighters at Ground Zero [photograph]; The Tuskegee Airmen [photograph] READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Is Wikipedia a Legitimate Research Source? *Michael Martinez, Why Citations Do Not Make Wikipedia and Similar Sites Credible *Kevin Morris, After a Half-Decade, Massive Wikipedia Hoax Finally Exposed *Alison Hudson, Stop Wikipedia Shaming *Andreas Kolbe, Debunking the "Accurate as Britannica" Myth Randall Stross, Anonymous Source Is Not the Same as Open Source Wikipedia, "Wikipedia: About"; Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "About the IEP" Neil Waters, Wikiphobia: The Latest in Open Source Template for Writing a Definition ArgumentWriting Assignments: Definition Arguments13—Cause-and-Effect ArgumentsAT ISSUE: Should Vaccination Be Required for All Children? What Is a Cause-and-Effect Argument? In One Year, Guns Murdered [advertisement] Surgeon General’s Warning [photograph] Buzzed Driving Is Drunk Driving [advertisement] Bumper Stickers [photograph] Understanding Cause-and-Effect Relationships Main and Contributory Causes Immediate and Remote Causes Causal Chains Key Words for Cause-and-Effect Arguments [box] Post Hoc Reasoning Nora Ephron, The Chicken Soup Chronicles Structuring a Cause-and-Effect Argument Kristina Mialki, Texting: A Boon, Not a Threat, to Language [student essay] GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Avoiding "The reason is because" Peggy Orenstein, Should the World of Toys Be Gender-Free? READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Should Vaccination Be Required for All Children? *Clyde Haberman, A Discredited Vaccine Study’s Continuing Impact on Public Health *Janet D. Stemwedel, Saying No to Vaccines*Mahesh Vidula, Individual Rights vs. Public Health: The Vaccination Debate*Ben Carson, Vaccinations Are for the Good of the Nation *Russell Saunders, Pediatrician: Vaccinate Your Kids — or Get Out of My Office *Jeffrey Singer, Vaccination and Free Will*Jenny McCarthy, The Gray Area on Vaccines *Facts about the Measles [graphic]Template for Writing a Cause-and-Effect Argument Writing Assignments: Cause-and-Effect Arguments14—Evaluation ArgumentsAT ISSUE: Do the Benefits of Fracking Outweigh the Environmental Risks? What Is an Evaluation Argument? Making Evaluations [box] Identifying Bias [box] Criteria for EvaluationStructuring an Evaluation Argument Kevin Murphy, Evaluation of a Website: RateMyProfessors.com [student essay] GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Comparatives and Superlatives Vernon R. Wiehe, Nothing Pretty in Child Pageants READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Do the Benefits of Fracking Outweigh the Environmental Risks? *Elizabeth Kolbert, Burning Love *Sean Lennon, Destroying Precious Land for Gas *Thomas L. Friedman, Get It Right on Gas *Scott McNally, Water Contamination: Fracking Is Not the Problem *Shale Gas Production Subcommitte, from Shale Gas Production Subcommitte 90-Day Report *USA Today Editorial Board, Fracking, with Care, Brings Big Benefits Template for Writing an Evaluation Argument Writing Assignments: Evaluation Arguments15—Proposal ArgumentsAT ISSUE: Should the Government Do More to Relieve the Student-Loan Burden?What Is a Proposal Argument? PETA, Let Vegetarianism Grow on You [advertisement] Problem Solving Strategies [box] Stating the Problem Proposing a Solution Demonstrating That Your Solution Will Work Sunshineweek.org, Let the Sunshine In [advertisement] Establishing FeasibilityDiscussing BenefitsRefuting Opposing Arguments Nyc.gov, It’s Your City. It’s Your Earth. [advertisement] Susan Engel, Teach Your Teachers Well Structuring a Proposal Argument Melissa Burrell, Colleges Need Honor Codes [student essay] GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Will versus Would *Adam Cohen, Self-Driving Cars Will Change the Rules of the Road READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Should the Government Do More to Relieve the Student-Loan Burden? Student Debt Crisis Solution [visual] Richard Vedder, Forgive Student Loans? Kevin Carey, The U.S. Should Adopt Income-Based Loans Now *Astra Taylor, A Strike against Student Debt *Lee Siegel, Why I Defaulted on My Student Loans *Sam Adolphsen, Don’t Blame the GovernmentTemplate for Writing a Proposal Argument Writing Assignments: Proposal Arguments16—Ethical ArgumentsAT ISSUE: How Far Should Schools Go to Keep Students Safe?What is an Ethical Argument?Stating an Ethical PrincipleEthics versus LawUnderstanding Ethical Dilemmas Treadlighly.org, Ride Hard, Tread Lightly [advertisement] *PETA, Adopt, Don’t Buy [advertisement] Linda Pastan, Ethics [poem] Structuring an Ethical Argument Chris Muñoz, Are Colleges Doing Enough for Nontraditional Students? [student essay] GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Subordination and Coordination *Daniel Suleiman, More Than "Moral Complicity" at Auschwitz READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: How Far Should Schools Go to Keep Students Safe? Brett A. Sokolow, How Not to Respond to Virginia Tech – II Jesus M. Villahermosa Jr., Guns Don’t Belong in the Hands of Administrators, Professors, or Students Timothy Wheeler, There’s a Reason They Choose Schools *Greg Hampikian, When May I Shoot a Student? *Todd C. Frankel, Can We Invent Our Way Out of School Violence? *Alan Schwarz, A Bid for Guns on Campuses to Deter Rape Isothermal Community College, Warning Signs: How You Can Help Prevent Campus Violence Amy Dion, Gone but Not Forgotten Template for Writing an Ethical Argument Writing Assignments: Ethical ArgumentsPart 5 Review: Combining Argumentative Strategies Anthony Prieto, Get the Lead Out of Hunting *Kevin Carey, Fulfill George Washington’s Last Wish — a National UniversityPart 6—Debates, Casebooks, and Classic ArgumentsDEBATES17— Are Helicopter Parents Ruining Their Children’s Lives? *Don Aucoin, For Some, Helicopter Parenting Delivers Benefits *Madeline Levine, Raising Successful Children18—Should Controversial Sports Mascots Be Replaced? Jack Shakley, Indian Mascots — You’re Out *Ellie Reynolds, Native Americans Have Become a Political Pawn19—Under What Circumstances Do Bystanders Have an Ethical Obligation to Intervene? *Lenore Skenazy, How Kitty Genovese Destroyed Childhood *Joe Nocera, It’s Hard to Be a Hero 20—Should Bottled Water Be Banned on College Campuses? *The Crimson Staff, Vote Yes on the Bottled Water Ban *Charles Fishman, Bottled Water Is Silly, But So Is Banning It CASEBOOKS21—Should Every American Go to College? *Eric Hoover, College’s Value Goes Deeper Than the Degree *Liz Weston, When a Two-Year College Degree Pays Off Charles Murray, What's Wrong with Vocational School? Pharinet, Is College for Everyone? 22—Should We Eat Meat? Jonathan Safran Foer, Let Them Eat Dog Nicolette Hahn Niman, The Carnivore’s Dilemma *Daniel Payne, Why You Should Eat ‘Humane’ Meat *Sunaura Taylor, Humane Meat? No Such Thing 23—Is America Safer Now than Before 9/11? Omar Ashmawy, Ten Years after 9/11, We’re Still in the Dark*Paul Brandus, Remembering 9/11: How Safe Are We Today?*Jonathan Rauch, Be Not Afraid*Christopher Elliott, The TSA Has Never Kept You Safe: Here’s Why 24—Does It Pay to Study the Humanities? *Christina H. Paxson, The Economic Case for Saving the Humanities*Anthony P. Carnevale and Michelle Melton, Major Differences: Why Undergraduate Majors Matter *Kim Brooks, Is It Time to Kill the Liberal Arts Degree? *Thomas Frank, Course Corrections25—CLASSIC ARGUMENTS Plato, The Allegory of the Cave Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence Abraham Lincoln, The Gettysburg Address Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions George Orwell, Politics and the English Language Rachel Carson, The Obligation to Endure Betty Friedan, The Importance of Work James Baldwin, If Black English Isn’t a Language, Then Tell Me, What Is? Appendix A—Writing Literary ArgumentsWhat Is a Literary Argument?Stating an Argumentative ThesisChoosing EvidenceWriting a Literary ArgumentMegan McGovern, Confessions of a Misunderstood Poem: An Analysis of "The Road Not Taken" [student essay] Loren Martinez, Not Just a "Girl"[student essay]
Appendix B—Documenting Sources: APA