Table of Contents
Preface for Instructors
How This Book Supports WPA Outcomes for First-Year Composition
1 Starting with Inquiry: Habits of Mind of Academic Writers
What Is Academic Writing?
What Are the Habits of Mind of Academic Writers?
Academic Writers Make Inquiries
Steps to Inquiry
A Practice Sequence: Inquiry Activities
Academic Writers Seek and Value Complexity
Steps to Seeking and Valuing Complexity
A Practice Sequence: Seeking and Valuing Complexity
Academic Writers See Writing as a Conversation
Steps to Joining an Academic Conversation
A Practice Sequence: Joining an Academic Conversation
Academic Writers Understand That Writing Is a Process
Steps to Collecting Information and Material
Steps to Drafting
Steps to Revising
Academic Writers Reflect
Steps to Reflection
A Practice Sequence: Reflection Activities
Becoming Academic: Three Narrative
Ta-Nehisi Coates, from Between the World and Me
Richard Rodriguez, Scholarship Boy
Gerald Graff, Disliking Books
A Practice Sequence: Composing a Literacy Narrative
2 From Reading as a Writer to Writing as a Reader
Reading as an Act of Composing: Annotating
Reading as a Writer: Analyzing a Text Rhetorically
E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Preface to Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to KnowSteps to Analyzing a Text Rhetorically
A Practice Sequence: Analyzing a Text Rhetorically
Eugene F. Provenzo, Jr., Hirsch’s Desire for a National Curriculum
Writing as a Reader: Composing a Rhetorical Analysis
David Tyack, Whither History Textbooks?
An Annotated Student Rhetorical Analysis
Quentin Collie, "Rhetorical Analysis of ‘Whither History Textbooks?"
Writing a Rhetorical Analysis
Sherry Turkle, "The Flight from Conversation"
A Practice Sequence: Writing a Rhetorical Analysis
3 From Writing Summaries to Writing Yourself into Academic Conversations
Summaries, Paraphrases, and Quotations
Writing a Paraphrase
Steps to Writing a Paraphrase
A Practice Sequence: Writing a Paraphrase
Writing a Summary
Clive Thompson, On the New Literacy
Steps to Writing a Summary
A Practice Sequence: Writing a Summary
Writing Yourself into Academic Conversations
Steps to Writing Yourself into an Academic Conversation
A Practice Sequence: Writing Yourself into an Academic Conversation
Tom Standage, History Retweets Itself
4 From Identifying Claims to Analyzing Arguments
Identifying Types of Claims
Dana Radcliffe, Dashed Hopes: Why Aren’t Social Media Delivering Democracy?
Steps to Identifying Claims
A Practice Sequence: Identifying Claims
Analyze the Reasons Used to Support a Claim
Steps to Evaluating Support for a Claim
An Annotated Student Argument
Marques Camp, The End of the World May Be Nigh, and It’s the Kindle’s Fault
Steps to Analyzing an Argument
A Practice Sequence: Analyzing an Argument
Susan D. Blum, The United States of (Non) Reading: The End of Civilization or a New Era?
Analyzing and Comparing Arguments
Stuart Rojsatczer, Grade Inflation Gone Wild
Phil Primack, Doesn’t Anyone Get a C Anymore?
A Practice Sequence: Analyzing and Comparing Arguments
5 From Identifying Issues to Forming Questions
Steps to Identifying Issues
Identifying Issues in an Essay
Anna Quindlen, Doing Nothing Is Something
A Practice Sequence: Identifying Issues
Formulating Issue-Based Questions
Steps to Formulating and Issue-Based Question
A Practice Sequence: Formulating an Issue-Based Question
An Academic Essay for Analysis
William Deresiewicz, The End of Solitude
6 From Formulating to Developing a Thesis
Working Versus Definitive Theses
Developing a Working Thesis: Four Models
The Correcting-Misinterpretations Model
The Filling-the-Gap Model
The Modifying-What-Others-Have-Said Model
The Hypothesis-Testing Model
Steps to Formulating a Working Thesis: Four Models
A Practice Sequence: Identifying Types of Theses
Establishing a Context for Stating a ThesisSteps to Establishing a Context for a Thesis
An Annotated Student Introduction: Providing a Context for a Thesis
Colin O’Neill, Money Matters: Framing the College Access Debate
Analyze the Context of a Thesis
Kris Gutierrez, from Teaching Toward Possibility: Building Cultural Supports for Robust Learning
A Practice Sequence: Building a Thesis
An Annotated Student Essay: Stating and Supporting a Thesis
Veronica Stafford, Texting and Literacy
7 From Finding to Evaluating Sources
A Practice Sequence: Identifying Sources
Searching for Sources
A Practice Sequence: Searching for Sources
Evaluating Library Sources
A Practice Sequence: Evaluating Library Sources
Evaluating Internet Sources
A Practice Sequence: Evaluating Internet Sources
Writing an Annotated Bibliography
Steps to Writing an Annotated Bibliography
A Practice Sequence: Writing an Annotated Bibliography
8 From Synthesis to Researched Argument
Synthesis Versus Summary
Writing a Synthesis
Paul Rogat Loeb, Making Our Lives Count
Anne Colby and Thomas Ehrlich et al, Undergraduate Education and the Development of Moral and Civic Responsibility
Laurie Ouellette, Citizen Brand: ABC and the Do Good Turn in US Television
Steps to Writing a Synthesis
A Practice Sequence: Writing a Synthesis
Dan Kennedy, Political Blogs: Teaching Us Lessons about Community
John Dickerson, Don’t Fear Twitter
Steve Grove, You Tube: The Flattening of Politics
Steps to Avoiding Plagiarism
Integrating Quotations into Your Writing
Steps to Integrating Quotations in Your Writing
A Practice Sequence: Integrating Quotations
An Annotated Student Researched Argument: Synthesizing Sources
Nancy Paul, A Greener Approach to Groceries: Community Based Agriculture in LaSalle Square
9 From Ethos to Logos: Appealing to Your Readers
Connecting with Readers: A Sample Argument
James Loewen, The Land of Opportunity
Appealing to Ethos
Steps to Appealing to Ethos
Appealing to Pathos
Steps to Appealing to Pathos
A Practice Sequence: Appealing to Ethos and Pathos
Appealing to Logos: Using Reason and Evidence to Fit the Situation
Steps to Appealing to Logos
Recognizing Logical Fallacies
Analyzing the Appeals in a Researched Argument
Meredith Minkler, Community-Based Research Partnerships: Challenges and Opportunities
A Practice Sequence: Analyzing the Appeals in a Researched Argument
10 From Image to Text
Analyzing Visual Rhetoric: Advertisements
Steps to Visual Analysis
A Practice Sequence: Analyzing the Rhetoric of an Advertisement
Further Advertisements for Analysis
Analyzing Visual Rhetoric: Maps, Tables or Charts, and Graphs
Using Maps to Make a Point
Using Photographs to Provide Context or Stir Emotions
Emily Badger, Mapped: The Place Where Most Public School Children Are Poor
Using Tables to Capture the Issue and Present Findings
Susan B. Neuman and Donna Celano, Access to Print in Low-Income and
Middle-Income Communities: An Ecological Study of Four Neighborhoods
Using Graphs to Present Findings
Steps to Using Visuals in Writing an Argument
A Practice Sequence: Using Visuals to Enhance an Argument
11 From Introductions to Conclusions: Drafting an Essay
Steps to Drafting Introductions: Five Strategies
A Practice Sequence: Drafting an Introduction
Elizabeth Martinez, Reinventing ‘America’: Call for a New National Identity
Steps to Developing Paragraphs
A Practice Sequence: Working with Paragraphs
Steps to Drafting Conclusions: Five Strategies
A Practice Sequence: Drafting a Conclusion
Analyzing Strategies for Writing: From Introductions to Conclusions
Barbara Ehrenreich, Cultural Baggage
12 From Revising to Editing: Working with Peer Groups
Revising versus Editing
The Peer Editing Process
Steps in the Peer Editing Process
Peer Groups in Action: A Sample Session
An Annotated Student Draft
Rebcca Jegier, Student-Centered Learning: Catering to Students’ Impatience
Working with Early Drafts
Tasha Taylor (student writer), Memory through Photography
Working with Later Drafts
Tasha Taylor (student writer), Memory through Photography
Working with Final Drafts
Tasha Taylor (student writer), Memory through Photography
Further Suggestions for Peer Editing Groups
13 Other Methods of Inquiry: Interviews and Focus Groups
Why Do Original Research?
Getting Started: Writing an Idea Sheet
A Student’s Annotated Idea Sheet
Dan Grace (student writer), Idea Sheet for Parent/Child Autism Study
Getting Started: Writing a Proposal
Steps to Writing a Proposal
An Annotated Student Proposal
Laura Hartigan (student writer), Proposal for Research: The Affordances of Multimodal, Creative Writing and Academic Writing
Steps to Interviewing
Using Focus Groups
Steps for Conducting a Focus Group
14 Education: What does it mean to be educated? Who has access to a good education, and why?
MARK EDMUNDSON, Who Are You and What are You Doing Here? A Word to the Incoming Class
A professor claims you may have to fight with your college to get a "real education"
LAURA PAPPANO, How Big-Time Sports Ate College
A journalist examines the impact of big-time sports on university life.SUSAN DYNARSKI, Why American Schools are Even More Unequal Than We Thought
A journalist argues for a new approach to addressing the needs of the most financially vulnerable students.SEAN F. REARDON, JANE WALDFOGEL, AND DAPHNA BASSOK, The Good News about Educational Inequality
Scholars discover encouraging evidence of a narrowing gap between high- and low-income children’s readiness for school.NIKOLE HANNAH-JONES, School Segregation, the Continuing Tragedy of Ferguson
A writer exposes the history of educational inequalities that provide context for Michael Brown’s shooting death in Ferguson, Missouri.
15 Sociology: How do race, class, and gender influence us?
ALLAN G. JOHNSON, What is Privilege? A sociologist explains how patterns of privilege are often hard to see, but have a profound impact on our lives.
CLAUDIA RANKINE, The Condition of Black Life is One of Mourning
Connecting the past to the present, a writer examines personal and political aspects of mourning in the context of the Black Lives Matter movement.
C. J. PASCOE, "Dude, You’re a Fag": Adolescent Masculinity and the Fag Discourse
Calling someone a "fag" has little to do with homosexuality, argues a sociologist.
"Looking at ‘fag’ as a discourse rather than a static identity reveals that the term can be invested with different meanings in different spaces."
BARBARA EHRENREICH, How I Discovered the Truth About Poverty
In a short, pithy essay, one of America’s best-known social commentators takes issue with a classic study of poverty from fifty years ago. Nowadays we have to conclude "that poverty is not, after all, a cultural aberration or a character flaw. Poverty is a shortage of money."
BELL HOOKS, Seeing and Making Culture: Representing the Poor
An African American cultural critic makes the case from her personal experience that "Television shows and films bring the message home that no one can feel truly good about themselves if they are poor."
16 Media Studies: What can we learn from what entertains us?
MELISSA AVDEEFF, Beyoncé and Social Media: Authenticity and the Presentation of Self
A scholar of popular music considers the "public private" meanings of Beyoncé’s Instagram account.
EVAN KINDLEY, from Quiz Mania
A critic examines the significance of "Buzzfeed’s knack for monetizing the zeitgeist."
WILLIAM POWERS, Not So Busy
An author asks how we can make a good life in a digital age.
MARK HAIN, ‘We are Here for You’: The It Gets Better Project, Queering Rural Space, and Cultivating Queer Media Literacy
A scholar of Communication and Culture considers the role of DIY "It Gets Better" videos for rural LGBTQ youth.
KEN GILLAM AND SHANNON R. WOODEN, Post-Princess Models of Gender: The New Man in Disney/Pixar
Two English professors suggest that in recent family movies such as The Incredibles, Toy Story, and Cars, Disney’s Pixar studio "consistently promotes a new model of masculinity, one that matures into acceptance of its more traditionally ‘feminine’ aspects."
JEAN KILBOURNE, "Two Ways a Woman Can Get Hurt": Advertising and Violence
A media educator takes aim at sex in advertising, which she claims is "more often about power than passion, about violence than violins."
SHERRY TURKLE, Growing Up Tethered
Is personal development in adolescents hindered by new technologies and the "compulsions of the networked life"? A professor in the Program in Science, Technology, and Society at MIT presents many examples that suggest so.
17 Psychology and Biology: How do our physical and cultural selves intersect?
CAROL DWECK, from Mindset: The New Psychology of Success
A professor of psychology describes two different "mindsets" that shape our responses to challenges, and argues: You can change your mindset.
MARY AIKEN, Designed to Addict
A Cyberpsychologist provides scientific explanations for online behaviors that are likely familiar … and perhaps downright harmful.
MARGARET TALBOT, from Brain Gain: The Underground World of ‘Neuroenhancing’ Drugs
A New Yorker writer reports on how a new generation of high achievers is increasingly drawn to drugs that improve their already exceptional performances.
AGUSTÍN FUENTES, from The Myth of Race
An anthropologist uses a range of examples to demonstrate the startling implications of his claim that while "humans vary biologically, we can demonstrate that this variation does not cluster into racial groups. What we refer to as human races are not biological units."
WILLIAM J. PEACE, Slippery Slopes: Media, Disability, and Adaptive Sports
The author of the Bad Cripple blog examines the effects and consequences of narrow media depictions of disability as something to be miraculously and inspirationally "overcome."
18 Sustainability and Environmental Studies: How do our decisions affect our environment?
RACHEL CARSON, Fable for TomorrowIn a ground-breaking text, the scientist Rachel Carson launches the modern environmental movement.
SANDRA STEINGRABER, Despair Not
Although she marshals a range of sobering evidence about climate change and environmental toxins, an ecologist and cancer survivor exhorts us not to despair about the future: "We can break the spell. We can prepare the way."
DERRICK JENSEN AND STEPHANIE MCMILLAN, As the World Burns: 50 Simple Things You Can Do to Stay in Denial
This excerpt from a satiric graphic novel makes a challenging argument: All the little things we do to help the environment make us feel better about ourselves do not help the planet as much as we like to think.
ANDREW J. HOFFMAN, The Full Scope
A scientist considers rhetorical strategies to change "hearts and minds" in the contentious climate-change debates.
ANNA LAPPÉ, The Climate Crisis at the End of Our Fork
Yes, "industrial smokestacks" and "oil-thirsty planes and automobiles" contribute to climate change, writes the co-founder of the Small Planet Institute. Yet, the global system for producing and distributing food accounts for roughly one-third of the human-caused global warming effect.
"MICHAEL POLLAN, Why Bother?
One of today’s most important writers on food and sustainability sees environmental hope in small lifestyle changes: "Planting a garden sounds pretty benign, but in fact it’s one of the most powerful things an individual can do . . . to change the cheap-energy mind.
"MCKAY JENKINS, Can GMOs be Sustainable?
An expert on environmental debates offers a nuanced view of GMOs, from the perspective of "enlightened local farmers.
"CAROLYN MERCHANT, Eden Commodified
This study by a professor of environmental history, philosophy, and ethics weaves together our fascination with the idea of an Edenic nature and our consumerist desires for convenience to help us think about what those desires may really cost.
19 Economics: How do economics shape our self- understandings and possibilities? What kinds of choices do we have?
SARA GOLDRICK-RAB, from Paying the Price
An expert on the student loan crisis argues making college affordable is good for everyone.
ROBERT B. REICH, The Rise of the Working Poor
An economist explains policy shifts that have "reduced the number of poor people who are jobless, while increasing the number of poor people who have jobs."
RICHARD H. THALER, CASS R. SUNSTEIN, AND JOHN P. BALZ, Choice Architecture
Scholars of business, law, and political science demonstrate how "small and apparently insignificant details can have major impacts on people’s behavior." Do you know when you’ve been "nudged"?
NAOMI KLEIN, from No Logo
What’s wrong with feeling good about buying a product for the prestige of owning a particular brand name? A journalist asks us to think about how and why we have been socialized to feel this way.
ANN DUCILLE, from Multicultural Barbie and the Merchandising of Difference
"What did it mean for me that I was nowhere in the toys I played with?" A professor of African American studies explores the ways we all help establish cultural norms through producing and consuming goods and ideas.