Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature
Eleventh EditionMichael Meyer©2017
Literature lives here.
This book can help you read, write about, and love literature. You’ll find wonderful stories, poems, and plays spanning time periods, cultures, and voices, including works by some of today’s best writers. And you will find plenty of instruction to help you read literature closely and work with it in your own writing. Spend time with the fiction, poetry, and drama in this book — and carefully practice the critical thinking, reading, and writing skills you need in order to succeed both inside and out of the classroom.
Table of Contents
16. An Album of Humor and Satire ANNIE PROULX, 55 Miles to the Gas Pump RON HANSEN, My Kid’s DogJOYCE CAROL OATES, Hi Howya Doin’MARK TWAIN, The Story of the Good Little Boy 17. An Album of Remarkably Short Contemporary Stories*LYDIA DAVIS, Negative EmotionsRON CARLSON, Max MARK HALLIDAY, Young Man on Sixth AveMARK BUDMAN, The Diary of a Salaryman PETER MEINKE, The CranesTERRY L. TILTON, That Settles ThatA Collection of Stories 18. Stories for Further Reading *TONI CADE BAMBERA, Sweet Town*STEPHEN CRANE, An Episode of War*CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN, If I Were a ManD. H. LAWRENCE, The Horse Dealer’s Daughter JACK LONDON, To Build a FireEDGAR ALLAN POE, The Cask of Amontillado POETRY THE ELEMENTS OF POETRY19. Reading Poetry Reading Poetry Responsively LISA PARKER, Snapping Beans ROBERT HAYDEN, Those Winter Sundays JOHN UPDIKE, Dog’s Death The Pleasure of Words WILLIAM HATHAWAY, Oh, Oh A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Version of "Oh, Oh"ROBERT FRANCIS, Catch A SAMPLE STUDENT ANALYSIS: Tossing Metaphors Together in Robert Francis’s "Catch" PHILIP LARKIN, A Study of Reading Habits ROBERT MORGAN, Mountain Graveyard E. E. CUMMINGS, l(a ANONYMOUS, Western Wind REGINA BARRECA, Nighttime Fires Suggestions for Approaching Poetry BILLY COLLINS, Introduction to Poetry Poetry in Popular Forms HELEN FARRIES, Magic of LoveJOHN FREDERICK NIMS, Love Poem Poems for Further Study MARY OLIVER, The Poet with His Face in His Hands JIM TILLEY, The Big QuestionsALBERTO RÍOS, Seniors *ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON, The Eagle *EDGAR ALLAN POE, To ScienceCORNELIUS EADY, The SupremesEncountering Poetry: Images of Poetry in Popular Culture POSTER: Dorothy Parker, Unfortunate Coincidence PHOTO: Carl Sandburg, Window CARTOON: Roz Chast, The Love Song of J. Alfred CrewPHOTO: Tim Taylor, I shake the delicate apparatus POSTER: Eric Dunn and Mike Wigton, National Poetry Slam PHOTO: Kevin Fleming WEB SCREEN: Ted Kooser, American Life in Poetry POEM IN NEWSPAPER: MICHAEL MCFEE, Spitwads20. Writing about Poetry From Reading to Writing Questions for Responsive Reading and Writing ELIZABETH BISHOP, Manners A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Version of "Manners" A SAMPLE STUDENT ANALYSIS: Memory in Elizabeth Bishop’s "Manners" 21. Word Choice, Word Order, and Tone Word Choice Diction Denotations and ConnotationsRANDALL JARRELL, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner Word Order Tone MARILYN NELSON, How I Discovered Poetry KATHARYN HOWD MACHAN, Hazel Tells LaVerne A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Tone in Katharyn Howd Machan’s "Hazel Tells LaVerne" MARTÍN ESPADA, Latin Night at the Pawnshop PAUL LAURENCE DUNBAR, To a Captious Critic Diction and Tone in Four Love Poems ROBERT HERRICK, To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time ANDREW MARVELL, To His Coy Mistress ANN LAUINGER, Marvell Noir SHARON OLDS, Last Night PERSPECTIVE: BARNEY AND CLYDE, The Defenestration of FrogPoems for Further Study*WALT WHITMAN, The Dalliance of Eagles THOMAS HARDY, The Convergence of the Twain DAVID R. SLAVITT, Titanic *DANUSHA LAMERIS, Names MARY OLIVER, Oxygen CATHY SONG, The Youngest Daughter*ANGELA ALAIMO O’DONNELL, Messenger JOHN KEATS, Ode on a Grecian Urn GWENDOLYN BROOKS, We Real Cool JOAN MURRAY, We Old Dudes *ALICE JONES, The Lungs LOUIS SIMPSON, In the Suburbs GARRISON KEILLOR, The AnthemA Note on Reading Translations Three Translations of a Poem by Sappho SAPPHO, Immortal Aphrodite of the broidered throne(translated by Henry T. Wharton) SAPPHO, Beautiful-throned, immortal Aphrodite(translated by Thomas Wentworth Higginson) SAPPHO, Prayer to my lady of Paphos (translated by Mary Barnard) 22. Images Poetry’s Appeal to the Senses WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, Poem WALT WHITMAN, Cavalry Crossing a Ford DAVID SOLWAY, Windsurfing MATTHEW ARNOLD, Dover Beach RUTH FORMAN, Poetry Should Ride the BusPoems for Further Study *ADELAIDE CRAPSEY, November NightRUTH FAINLIGHT, Crocuses MARY ROBINSON, London’s Summer Morning WILLIAM BLAKE, London A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Imagery in William Blake’s "London" and Mary Robinson’s "London’s Summer Morning" WILFRED OWEN, Dulce et Decorum Est PATRICIA SMITH, What It’s Like to Be a Black Girl (for Those of You Who Aren’t) *CHALRES SIMIC, Fork SALLY CROFT, Home-Baked Bread JOHN KEATS, To Autumn *STEPHEN CRANE, The WayfarerLUISA LOPEZ, Junior Year Abroad PERSPECTIVE: T. E. HULME, On the Differences between Poetry and Prose 23. Figures of Speech WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, From Macbeth (Act V, Scene v) Simile and Metaphor MARGARET ATWOOD, you fit into me EMILY DICKINSON, Presentiment — is that long Shadow—on the lawn— ANNE BRADSTREET, The Author to Her Book RICHARD WILBUR, The WriterOther Figures DYLAN THOMAS, The Hand That Signed the Paper JANICE TOWNLEY MOORE, To a Wasp J. PATRICK LEWIS, The Unkindest Cut Poems for Further Study GARY SNYDER, How Poetry Comes to Me A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Metaphor in Gary Snyder’s "How Poetry Comes to Me" WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, To Waken an Old Lady ERNEST SLYMAN, Lightning Bugs *MARTÍN ESPADA, The Mexican Cabdriver’s Poem for His Wife, Who Has Left HimJUDY PAGE HEITZMAN, The Schoolroom on the Second Floor of the Knitting Mill WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, London, 1802 JIM STEVENS, Schizophrenia *LUCILLE CLIFTON, Come Home from the Movies *KAY RYAN, LearningRONALD WALLACE, Building an Outhouse ELAINE MAGARRELL, The Joy of Cooking PERSPECTIVE: JOHN R. SEARLE, Figuring Out Metaphors 24. Symbol, Allegory, and Irony Symbol ROBERT FROST, Acquainted with the Night Allegory EDGAR ALLAN POE, The Haunted Palace Irony EDWIN ARLINGTON ROBINSON, Richard Cory A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Irony in Edwin Arlington Robinson’s "Richard Cory" KENNETH FEARING, AD E. E. CUMMINGS, next to of course god america i STEPHEN CRANE, A Man Said to the Universe Poems for Further Study BOB HICOK, Making it in poetry *JANE KENYON, Not Writing KEVIN PIERCE, Proof of Origin *CARL SANDBURG, A Fence JULIO MARZÁN, Ethnic Poetry MARK HALLIDAY, Graded Paper JAMES MERRILL, Casual Wear HENRY REED, Naming of Parts ROBERT BROWNING, My Last Duchess *WILLIAM BLAKE, A Poison Tree*PAUL MULDOON, Symposium PERSPECTIVE: EZRA POUND, On Symbols 25. Sounds Listening to Poetry ANONYMOUS, Scarborough Fair JOHN UPDIKE, Player Piano EMILY DICKINSON, A Bird came down the Walk— A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Sound in Emily Dickinson’s "A Bird came down the Walk—" Rhyme RICHARD ARMOUR, Going to Extremes ROBERT SOUTHEY, From The Cataract of Lodore PERSPECTIVE: DAVID LENSON, On the Contemporary Use of Rhyme Sound and Meaning GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, God’s Grandeur Poems for Further Study LEWIS CARROLL (CHARLES LUTWIDGE DODGSON), Jabberwocky WILLIAM HEYEN, The TrainsJOHN DONNE, Song *KAY RYAN, Dew*ANDREW HUDGINS, The Ice Cream Truck PAUL HUMPHREY, Blow ROBERT FRANCIS, The Pitcher HELEN CHASIN, The Word PlumRICHARD WAKEFIELD, The Bell Rope *JEAN TOOMER, UnsuspectingJOHN KEATS, Ode to a Nightingale HOWARD NEMEROV, Because You Asked about the Line between Prose and Poetry 26. Patterns of Rhythm Some Principles of Meter WALT WHITMAN, From Song of the Open Road WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, My Heart Leaps Up Suggestions for Scanning a Poem TIMOTHY STEELE, Waiting for the Storm A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Rhythm of Anticipation in Timothy Steele’s "Waiting for the Storm" WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, That the Night Come Poems for Further Study *SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, MnemonicJOHN MALONEY, Good!WILLIAM TROWBRIDGE, Drumming Behind You in the High School BandALICE JONES, The Foot A. E. HOUSMAN, When I was one-and-twenty ROBERT HERRICK, Delight in Disorder BEN JONSON, Still to Be Neat *E.E. CUMMINGS, O Sweet SpontaneousWILLIAM BLAKE, The Lamb WILLIAM BLAKE, The Tyger CARL SANDBURG, Chicago *VIRGINIA HAMILTON ADAIR, Pro SnakePERSPECTIVE: LOUISE BOGAN, On Formal Poetry 27. Poetic Forms Some Common Poetic Forms A. E. HOUSMAN, Loveliest of trees, the cherry now ROBERT HERRICK, Upon Julia’s ClothesSonnet JOHN KEATS, On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, The World Is Too Much with Us WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun SHERMAN ALEXIE, The Facebook Sonnet*THOMAS HARDY, At the Altar-RailR.S. GWYNN, Shakespearean SonnetVillanelle DYLAN THOMAS, Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night EDWIN ARLINGTON ROBINSON, The House on the HillSestina ALGERNON CHARLES SWINBURNE, Sestina FLORENCE CASSEN MAYERS, All-American Sestina Epigram SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, What Is an Epigram? DAVID MCCORD, Epitaph on a Waiter PAUL LAURENCE DUNBAR, Theology Limerick ARTHUR HENRY REGINALD BUTLER, There was a young lady named Bright LAURENCE PERRINE, The limerick’s never averse Haiku MATSUO BASHO, Under cherry trees CAROLYN KIZER, After Basho- *AMY LOWELL, Last Night That It Rained*GARY SNYDER, A Dent in a BucketElegy BEN JONSON, On My First Son Ode *ALEXANDER POPE, Ode on Solitude Parody BLANCHE FARLEY, The Lover Not Taken Picture Poem MICHAEL MCFEE, In Medias Res PERSPECTIVE: ELAINE MITCHELL, Form 28. Open Form WALT WHITMAN, From I Sing the Body Electric PERSPECTIVE: WALT WHITMAN, On Rhyme and Meter A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Power of Walt Whitman’s Open Form Poem "I Sing the Body Electric" DAVID SHUMATE, Shooting the HorseRICHARD HAGUE, Directions for Resisting the SAT *MICHAEL RYAN, I*E.E. CUMMINGS, Old Age SticksNATASHA TRETHEWEY, On Captivity JULIO MARZÁN, The Translator at the Reception for Latin American Writers *CHARLES HARPER WEBB, DescentKEVIN YOUNG, Eddie Priest’s Barber Shop and NotaryANONYMOUS, The Frog*DAVID HERNANDEZ, All-AmericanFound Poem DONALD JUSTICE, Order in the Streets 29. Combining the Elements of Poetry: A Writing Process The Elements Together Mapping the Poem JOHN DONNE, Death Be Not Proud Asking Questions about the Elements A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Version of "Death Be Not Proud" A SAMPLE FIRST RESPONSE Organizing Your Thoughts A SAMPLE INFORMAL OUTLINE The Elements and Theme A SAMPLE EXPLICATION: The Use of Conventional Metaphors for Death in John Donne’s "Death Be Not Proud" APPROACHES TO POETRY 30. A Study of Emily Dickinson A Brief Biography and An Introduction to Her Work EMILY DICKINSONIf I can stop one Heart from breaking If I shouldn’t be alive The Thought beneath so slight a film— To make a prairie it takes a clover and one bee EMILY DICKINSONSuccess is counted sweetest Water, is taught by thirst *Papa Above!Safe in their Alabaster Chambers—(1859 version) Safe in their Alabaster Chambers—(1861 version) Portraits are to daily faces Some keep the Sabbath going to Church— *I taste a liquor never brewed—"Heaven"— is what I cannot reach! I like a look of Agony Wild Nights—Wild Nights! The Soul selects her own Society— Much Madness is divinest Sense— I dwell in Possibility— I heard a Fly buzz—when I died— Because I could not stop for Death— The Bustle in a House Tell all the Truth but tell it slant— * O Sumptuous moment* A Route of EvanescenceFrom all the Jails the Boys and GirlsPERSPECTIVES ON EMILY DICKINSON EMILY DICKINSON, A Description of Herself THOMAS WENTWORTH HIGGINSON, On Meeting Dickinson for the First Time MABEL LOOMIS TODD, The Character of Amherst RICHARD WILBUR, On Dickinson’s Sense of Privation SANDRA M. GILBERT AND SUSAN GUBAR, On Dickinson’s White Dress PAULA BENNETT, On "I heard a Fly buzz— when I died—" MARTHA NELL SMITH, On "Because I could not stop for Death—" Questions for Writing about an Author in Depth A SAMPLE IN-DEPTH STUDY EMILY DICKINSON"Faith" is a fine invention I know that He exists I never saw a Moor— Apparently with no surprise A SAMPLE STUDENT PAPERReligious Faith in Four Poems by Emily Dickinson Suggested Topics for Longer Papers 31. A Study of Robert Frost A Brief Biography and An Introduction to His Work ROBERT FROSTThe Road Not Taken The Pasture ROBERT FROSTMowing Mending Wall Birches "Out, Out—" Fire and Ice Dust of SnowStopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening The Need of Being Versed in Country Things *Nothing Gold Can Stay*Once by the PacificNeither Out Far nor In Deep Design* The Gift OutrightPERSPECTIVES ON ROBERT FROST ROBERT FROST, "In White": An Early Version of "Design" ROBERT FROST, On the Living Part of a Poem AMY LOWELL, On Frost’s Realistic Technique ROBERT FROST, On the Figure a Poem Makes HERBERT R. COURSEN JR., A Parodic Interpretation of "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening" Suggested Topics for Longer Papers 32. A Study of Billy Collins: The Author Reflects on Five Poems A Brief Biography and an Introduction to His Work INTRODUCTION: BILLY COLLINS, How Do Poems Travel?POEM: BILLY COLLINS, Osso Buco ESSAY: BILLY COLLINS, On Writing "Osso Buco" POEM: BILLY COLLINS, Nostalgia ESSAY: BILLY COLLINS, On Writing "Nostalgia" POEM: BILLY COLLINS, Questions About Angels ESSAY: BILLY COLLINS, On Writing "Questions About Angels" POEM: BILLY COLLINS, Litany ESSAY: BILLY COLLINS, On Writing "Litany" POEM: BILLY COLLINS, Building with Its Face Blown Off PERSPECTIVE: On "Building with Its Face Blown Off": Michael Meyer Interviews Billy Collins FACSIMILES: BILLY COLLINS, Three Draft Manuscript PagesSuggested Topics for Longer Papers 33. A Study of Julia Alvarez: The Author Reflects on Five Poems A Brief Biography and An Introduction to Her Work ESSAY: JULIA ALVAREZ, On Writing "Queens, 1963" POEM: JULIA ALVAREZ, Queens, 1963 PERSPECTIVE: MARNY REQUA, From an Interview with Julia Alvarez ESSAY: JULIA ALVAREZ, On Writing "Housekeeping Cages" and Her Housekeeping Poems POEM: JULIA ALVAREZ, Housekeeping Cages ESSAY: JULIA ALVAREZ, On Writing "Dusting" POEM: JULIA ALVAREZ, Dusting ESSAY: JULIA ALVAREZ, On Writing "Ironing Their Clothes" POEM: JULIA ALVAREZ, Ironing Their Clothes ESSAY: JULIA ALVAREZ, On Writing "Sometimes the Words Are So Close" (From the "33" Sonnet Sequence) POEM: JULIA ALVAREZ, Sometimes the Words Are So Close FACSIMILES: JULIA ALVAREZ, Four Draft Manuscript Pages ESSAY: JULIA ALVAREZ, On Writing "First Muse" POEM: JULIA ALVAREZ, First Muse PERSPECTIVE: KELLI LYON JOHNSON, Mapping an Identity34. A Cultural Case Study: Harlem Renaissance Poets Claude McKay, Georgia Douglas Johnson, Langston Hughes, and Countee Cullen INTRODUCTIONCLAUDE MCKAY, A Brief Biography and an Introduction to His WorkCLAUDE MCKAYThe Harlem DancerIf We Must DieThe Tropics in New YorkThe LynchingAmerica*The White City*The BarrierGEORGIA DOUGLAS JOHNSON, A Brief Biography and an Introduction to Her WorkGEORGIA DOUGLAS JOHNSONYouthForedoomCalling DreamsLost IllusionsFusion*PrejudiceLANGSTON HUGHES, A Brief Biography and an Introduction to His WorkLANGSTON HUGHESThe Negro Speaks of Rivers JazzoniaLenox Avenue: Midnight Ballad of the Landlord125th Street HarlemCOUNTEE CULLEN, A Brief Biography and an Introduction to His WorkCOUNTEE CULLENYet Do I MarvelIncidentFor a Lady I KnowTableauFrom the Dark TowerTo Certain CriticsPERSPECTIVES KAREN JACKSON FORD, Hughes’s Aesthetics of Simplicity DAVID CHINITZ, The Romanticization of Africa in the 1920s ALAIN LOCKE, Review of Georgia Douglas Johnson’s Bronze: A Book of VerseCOUNTEE CULLEN, On Racial PoetryONWUCHEKWA JEMIE, On Universal PoetrySuggested Topics for Longer Papers 35. A Thematic Case Study: Humor and Satire JOHN CIARDI, Suburban HARRYETTE MULLEN, Dim LadyRONALD WALLACE, In a Rut *JIM TILLEY, Hello, Old ManMARTÍN ESPADA, The Community College Revises Its Curriculum in Response to Changing Demographics * E.E. CUMMINGS, When Serpents Bargain for the Right to SquirmGARY SOTO, Mexicans Begin Jogging THOMAS MOORE, At the Berkeley Free Speech Café BILLIE BOLTON, MemorandumX. J. KENNEDY, On a Young Man’s Remaining an Undergraduate for Twelve Years [[COLOR INSERT]]Poetry and the Visual ArtsPainting: GRANT WOOD, American GothicPoem: JOHN STONE, American GothicWoodblock print: KIAGAWA UTAMARO, Girl Powdering Her NeckPoem: CATHY SONG, Girl Powdering Her NeckSculpture: MAYA LIN, The Vietnam Veteran’s MemorialPoem: YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA, Facing ItPainting: PIETER BRUEGHEL THE ELDER, Two Chained MonkeysPoem: WISLAWA SZYMBORSKA, Brueghel’s Two MonkeysPainting: EDWARD HOPPER, House by the RailroadPoem: EDWARD HIRSCH, Edward Hopper and the House by the RailroadPainting: VERMEER, The MilkmaidPoem: WISLAWA SZYMBORSKA, Vermeer36. A Thematic Case Study: The Natural World TOM DISCH, Birdsong Interpreted*WENDELL BERRY, The Peace of Wild ThingsGAIL WHITE, Dead Armadillos DAVE LUCAS, November WALT MCDONALD, Coming Across It ALDEN NOWLAN, The Bull Moose KAY RYAN, Turtle*MAXIM KUMIN, The Whole HogMARY OLIVER, Wild GeeseSuggested Topics for Longer Papers 37. A Thematic Case Study: The World of Work DANA GIOIA, MoneyTONY HOAGLAND, AmericaJAN BEATTY, My Father Teaches Me to DreamMICHAEL CHITWOOD, Men Throwing BricksBARON WORMSER, Labor*TED KOOSER, LaundryDAVID IGNATOW, The Jobholder JOYCE SUTPHEN, Guys Like That MARGE PIERCY, To be of useSuggested Topics for Longer Papers AN ANTHOLOGY OF POEMS 38. A Collection of Poems ANONYMOUS, Bonny Barbara Allan * APHRA BEHN, Song: Love ArmedW.H. AUDEN, The Unknown CitizenWILLIAM BLAKE, Infant Sorrow ANNE BRADSTREET, Before the Birth of One of Her Children * WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT, To a Waterfowl * ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING, How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the WaysROBERT BURNS, A Red, Red Rose SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, Kubla Khan: or, a Vision in a Dream JOHN DONNE, Batter My Heart *PAUL LAURENCE DUNBAR, SympathyGEORGE ELIOT (MARY ANN EVANS), In a London Drawingroom T.S. ELIOT, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock*RALPH WALDO EMERSON, Days*THOMAS HARDY, I Looked Up From My WritingFRANCES E. W. HARPER, Learning to Read *GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, Spring and Fall GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, The Windhover *A. E. HOUSMAN, Loveliest of Trees, The Cherry Now BEN JONSON, To Celia JOHN KEATS, To one who has been long in city pent JOHN KEATS, When I have fears that I may cease to be *JOHN KEATS, Bright Star! Would I Were Steadfast As Thou Art—* D.H. LAWRENCE, How Beastly the Bourgeois IsEMMA LAZARUS, The New Colossus JOHN MILTON, On the Late Massacre in Piedmont JOHN MILTON, When I consider how my light is spent *EDGAR ALLEN POE, To Helen*CHRISTINA GEORGINA ROSSETTI, Uphill *EDWARD ARLINGTON ROBINSON, Miniver CheevySIEGFRIED SASSOON, "They" *WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, Winter *WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, Let me not to the marriage of true mindsWILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, When, in disgrace with Fortune and men’s eyes PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY, Ozymandias LYDIA HUNTLEY SIGOURNEY, Indian Names *JONATHAN SWIFT, A Description of the MorningALFRED, LORD TENNYSON, Ulysses *EDMUND WALLER, Go, Lovely Rose*WALT WHITMAN, As Adam Early in the Morning WALT WHITMAN, When I Heard the Learn’d Astronomer WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal *WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, Composed Upon Westminster BridgeWILLIAM WORDSWORTH, The Solitary Reaper WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, Mutability WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, Leda and the Swan * WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, The Lake Isle of InnisfreeDRAMA The Study of Drama 39. Reading Drama Reading Drama Responsively SUSAN GLASPELL, Triﬂes A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Section of Triﬂes PERSPECTIVESUSAN GLASPELL, From the Short Story Version of Triﬂes Elements of Drama MICHAEL HOLLINGER, Naked Lunch Drama in Popular Forms LARRY DAVID, "The Pitch," a Seinfeld Episode 40. Writing about Drama From Reading to Writing Questions for Responsive Reading and Writing A SAMPLE STUDENT PAPER: The Feminist Evidence in Triﬂes 41. A Study of Sophocles Theatrical Conventions of Greek Drama Tragedy *SOPHOCLES, Oedipus the King (Translated by Dudley Fitts and Robert Fitzgerald) PERSPECTIVES ON SOPHOCLES ARISTOTLE, On Tragic Character SIGMUND FREUD, On the Oedipus Complex MURIEL RUKEYSER, On Oedipus the King DAVID WILES, On Oedipus the King as a Political Play 42. A Study of William Shakespeare Shakespeare’s Theater The Range of Shakespeare’s Drama: History, Comedy, and Tragedy A Note on Reading ShakespeareWILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, Othello the Moor of VenicePERSPECTIVES ON SHAKESPEARE THE MAYOR OF LONDON (1597), Objections to the Elizabethan Theater LISA JARDINE, On Boy Actors in Female Roles SAMUEL JOHNSON, On Shakespeare’s Characters JANE ADAMSON, On Desdemona’s Role in OthelloDAVID BEVINGTON, On Othello’s Heroic StruggleJAMES KINCAID, On the Value of Comedy in the Face of Tragedy Suggested Topics for Longer Papers Plays in Performance Photos of scenes from:Oedipus the King OthelloA Doll House Other Desert CitiesDead RightRodeo FencesTrying to Find ChinatownNo Child…Playwriting 101 Naked Lunch43. Modern Drama Realism Naturalism Theatrical Conventions of Modern Drama HENRIK IBSEN, A Doll House (Translated by Rolf Fjelde) PERSPECTIVEHENRIK IBSEN, Notes for A Doll House Beyond Realism 44. A Critical Case Study: Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll House PERSPECTIVES A Nineteenth-Century Husband’s Letter to His Wife BARRY WITHAM and JOHN LUTTERBIE, A Marxist Approach to A Doll House CAROL STRONGIN TUFTS, A Psychoanalytic Reading of Nora JOAN TEMPLETON, Is A Doll House a Feminist Text? Questions for Writing: Applying a Critical Strategy SAMPLE STUDENT PAPER: On the Other Side of the Slammed Door in A Doll House 45. A Thematic Case Study: An Album of Contemporary Humor and Satire JANE ANDERSON, The Reprimand SHARON E. COOPER, Mistaken Identity*DAVID IVES, Moby-Dude, Or: The Three-Minute WhaleJANE MARTIN, Rodeo JOAN ACKERMANN, Quiet Torrential SoundRICH ORLOFF, Playwriting 101: The Rooftop Lesson A Collection of Plays 46. Plays for Further Reading *STEVEN DIETZ, The SpotDAVID HENRY HWANG, Trying to Find Chinatown NILAJA SUN, No Child…*WENDY WASSERSTEIN, Tender OfferAUGUST WILSON, Fences PERSPECTIVEDAVID SAVRAN, An Interview with August Wilson Critical Thinking and Writing 47. Critical Strategies for Reading Critical Thinking The Literary Canon: Diversity and Controversy Formalist Strategies Biographical Strategies Psychological Strategies Historical Strategies Literary History Criticism Marxist Criticism New Historicist Criticism Cultural Criticism Gender Strategies Feminist Criticism Gay and Lesbian Criticism Mythological Strategies Reader-Response Strategies Deconstructionist Strategies 48. Reading and the Writing ProcessThe Purpose and Value of Writing about Literature Reading the Work Closely Annotating the Text and Journal Note Taking Annotated Text Journal Note Choosing a Topic Developing a Thesis Arguing about Literature Questions for Arguing about Literature Organizing a Paper Writing a Draft Writing the Introduction and Conclusion Using Quotations Revising and Editing Questions for Writing: A Revision Checklist Manuscript Form Types of Writing Assignments Explication A SAMPLE STUDENT EXPLICATION: A Reading of Dickinson’s "There’s a certain Slant of light" EMILY DICKINSON, There’s a certain Slant of light Analysis A SAMPLE STUDENT ANALYSIS: "The A & P" as a State of Mind Comparison and Contrast A SAMPLE STUDENT COMPARISON: The Struggle for Women’s Self-Deﬁnition in "Eveline" and A Doll House 49. The Literary Research Paper Choosing a Topic Finding Sources Annotated List of References Electronic Sources Evaluating Sources and Taking Notes Developing a Thesis and Organizing the Paper Revising Documenting Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism The List of Works Cited Parenthetical References A SAMPLE STUDENT RESEARCH PAPER: How the Narrator Cultivates a Rose for Emily 50. Taking Essay Examinations Preparing for an Essay Exam Keep Up with the Reading Take Notes and Annotate the Text Anticipate Questions Types of Exams Closed-Book versus Open-Book Exams Essay Questions Strategies for Writing Essay Exams Glossary of Literary Terms Index of First Lines Index of Authors and Titles Index of Terms