The Cherokee Removal of 1838–1839 unfolded against a complex backdrop of competing ideologies, self-interest, party politics, altruism, and ambition. Using documents that convey Cherokee voices, government policy, and white citizens’ views, Theda Perdue continues to present a multifaceted account of this complicated moment in American history. The third edition features new documents, including two contemporary newspaper articles and an interview with a former Cherokee slave. In addition, a new section allows readers to reflect on the legacy of the Trail of Tears and those affected by it. The introduction provides students with succinct historical background. Document headnotes contextualize the selections and draw attention to historical methodology. To aid students’ investigation of this compelling topic, the map and the chronology of the Cherokee Removal have been augmented by new questions for consideration and a selected bibliography.
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Table of Contents
Foreword Preface IllustrationsPart OneIntroduction: The Cherokees and U.S. Indian Policy The Cherokee People Early Contact with British Colonists The United States "Civilization" Program Cherokee Culture Change Pressure for Removal Cherokee Resistance and CapitulationPart TwoThe Documents 1. 1. Cherokee "Civilization" Becoming "Civilized" 1. Young Wolf, Last Will and Testament, 1814 2. Cherokee Committee, Ruling on Young Wolf’s Estate, 1824 A Cherokee View of "Civilization" 3. John Ridge, Letter to Albert Gallatin, February 27, 1826 Christian Missions 4. Elizabeth Taylor, Letter to Miss Abigail Parker, June 26, 1828 5. Sally M. Reece, Letter to Reverend Daniel Campbell, July 25, 1828 6. Nancy Reece, Letter to Reverend Fayette Shepherd, December 25, 1828 Quantifying Cherokee "Civilization" 7. The Census of 1835Who is Indian? 8. Major Ridge (1771?-1839)9. John Ross (1790-1866) The Cherokee Constitution of 1827 10. Constitution of the Cherokee Nation, Formed by a Convention of Delegates from the Several Districts, at New Echota, July 18272. 2. Georgia Policy The Georgia Laws 11. Georgia State Assembly, Laws Extending Jurisdiction over the Cherokees, December 19, 1829, and December 22, 1830 Georgia and the Supreme Court 12. United States Supreme Court, Worcester v. Georgia, March 1832 Dispossessing the Cherokees 13. Memorial of Protest of the Cherokee Nation, June 22, 1836 White Intruders 14. Zillah Haynie Brandon, Memoir, 1830–1838 3. 3. United States Policy In Defense of the Cherokees: The "William Penn" Essays 15. William Penn [Jeremiah Evarts], A Brief View of the Present Relations between the Government and People of the United States and the Indians within Our National Limits, November 1829 American Women Organize against Removal 16. Catherine Beecher, Circular, Addressed to Benevolent Ladies of the U. States, December 25, 1829 Lewis Cass Justifies Removal 17. Lewis Cass, Removal of the Indians, January 1830 Congress Acts 18. United States Congress, Indian Removal Act, May 28, 1830 Andrew Jackson Applauds the Removal Act 19. Andrew Jackson, State of the Union Address, December 6, 1830 4. 4. The Cherokee Debate Women and Removal 20. Cherokee Women, Petition, May 2, 1817 21. Cherokee Women, Petition, June 30, 1818 22. Cherokee Women, Petition, October 17, 1821 [1831?] Elias Boudinot’s Editorials in the Cherokee Phoenix 23. Elias Boudinot, Editorials in the Cherokee Phoenix, 1829, 1831 The Treaty of New Echota 24. Treaty with the Cherokees, 1835 The Opposition Continues 25. John Ross, Letter in Answer to Inquiries from a Friend, July 2, 1836 The Treaty Party’s Defense 26. Elias Boudinot, Letters and Other Papers Relating to Cherokee Affairs: Being a Reply to Sundry Publications by John Ross, 1837 5. 5. The Trail of Tears Enrollment 27. Memorial of Protest of the Cherokee Nation, June 22, 1836 Forced Removal 28. Evan Jones, Letters, May–December 1838 Waiting to Cross the Mississippi 29. George Hicks, Letter from the Trail of Tears, January 13, 1839 The Aftermath30. The Cherokee War, August 21, 183931. John Ridge, August 2, 1839Rebuilding the Cherokee Nation 32. Ethan Allen Hitchcock, Journal, 1841\6. Remembering the Trail of TearsOral History33. Rebecca Neugin, Recollections of Removal, 193234. Interview with Eliza Whitmire, 1936Marking the Trail of Tears35. Chief Vann House, 195436. Chief Vann House Historic Site37. Vann House, Spring Place GeorgiaCommemorating Removal38. Will Chavez, Three Trail of Tears Survivors Honored at April 18 Ceremonies, April 24, 2015APPENDIXESChronology of the Cherokee Removal (c. 1700–2007) Questions for ConsiderationSelected BibliographyIndex