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# Analysis of Biological Data

## Second EditionMichael C. Whitlock; Dolph Schluter

©2015
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* Analysis of Biological Data* features over 200 new examples and problems from today's medical and human health research. Modern methods of statistics are taught step-by-step using fascinating biological and medical cases.

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Learn More## Table of Contents

**PART 1. INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS**1. Statistics and samples

INTERLEAF 1 Biology and the history of statistics

2. Displaying data

3. Describing data

4. Estimating with uncertainty

INTERLEAF 2 Pseudoreplication

5. Probability

6. Hypothesis testing

INTERLEAF 3 Why statistical significance is not the same as biological importance

**PART 2. PROPORTIONS AND FREQUENCIES**7. Analyzing proportions

INTERLEAF 4 Correlation does not require causation

8. Fitting probability models to frequency data

INTERLEAF 5 Making a plan

9. Contingency analysis: associations between categorical variables

**PART 3. COMPARING NUMERICAL VALUES**10. The normal distribution

INTERLEAF 6 Controls in medical studies

11. Inference for a normal population

12. Comparing two means

INTERLEAF 7 Which test should I use?

13. Handling violations of assumptions

14. Designing experiments

INTERLEAF 8 Data dredging

15. Comparing means of more than two groups

INTERLEAF 9 Experimental and statistical mistakes

**PART 4. REGRESSION AND CORRELATION**16. Correlation between numerical variables

INTERLEAF 10 Publication bias

17. Regression

INTERLEAF 11 Using species as data points

**PART 5. MODERN STATISTICAL METHODS**18. Multiple explanatory variables

19. Computer-intensive methods

20. Likelihood

21. Meta-analysis: combining information from multiple studies

Answers to practice problems

Literature cited

Statistical tables

Photo credits

Index