American Promise: A Concise History, Volume 2
Eighth EditionJames L. Roark; Michael P. Johnson; Francois Furstenberg; Sarah Stage; Sarah Igo©2020
Learn the story of the America’s promise through the voices of ordinary and extraordinary Americans
The American Promise, Concise Edition, provides a story students enjoy for its readability, clear chronology, and lively voices of Americans. Through a question-driven approach, students see how human agency and the stories of individuals affected the political arc of American history. This book is also enhanced by LearningCurve, our easy-to-use adaptive learning system that will ensure that you come to class prepared
Table of Contents
Please Note: The Combined Volume includes all chapters. Volume 1 includes Chapters 1-16 and Volume 2 includes Chapters 16-31.
Versions and Supplements
Maps, Figures, and Tables
16. Reconstruction, 1863-1877
An American Story: James T. Rapier emerges as Alabama’s most prominent black leader
Why did Congress object to Lincoln’s wartime plan for reconstruction?
"To Bind Up the Nation’s Wounds"
Land and Labor
The African American Quest for Autonomy
ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: The Meaning of Freedom
How did the North respond to the passage of black codes in the southern states?
Johnson’s Program of Reconciliation
White Southern Resistance and Black Codes
Expansion of Federal Authority and Black Rights
How radical was congressional reconstruction?
The Fourteenth Amendment and Escalating Violence
Radical Reconstruction and Military Rule
Impeaching a President
The Fifteenth Amendment and Women’s Demands
What brought the elements of the South’s Republican coalition together?
Freedmen, Yankees, and Yeomen
White Landlords, Black Sharecroppers
Why did Reconstruction collapse?
Grant’s Troubled Presidency
Northern Resolve Withers
White Supremacy Triumphs
An Election and a Compromise
Conclusion: Was Reconstruction "a revolution but half accomplished"?
17. The Contested West, 1865-1900
An American Story: Frederick Jackson Turner delivers his "frontier thesis"
What did U.S. expansion mean for Native Americans?
Indian Removal and the Reservation System
The Decimation of the Great Bison Herds
The Santee Uprising and the Collapse of Comanchería
Red Cloud’s War and the Fight for the Black Hills
ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: "Custer’s Last Stand"
In what ways did different Indian groups defy and resist colonial rule?
Indian Schools and the War on Indian Culture
The Dawes Act and Indian Land Allotment
Indian Resistance and Survival
How did mining shape American expansion?
Life on the Comstock Lode
The Diverse Peoples of the West
How did the fight for land and resources in the West unfold?
Moving West: Homesteaders and Speculators
Tenants, Sharecroppers, and Migrants
Commercial Farming and Industrial Cowboys
Conclusion: How did the West set the tone for the Gilded Age?
18. The Gilded Age, 1865-1900
An American Story: The Big Four build the transcontinental railroad
How did the railroads stimulate big business?
Railroads: America’s First Big Business
Andrew Carnegie, Steel, and Vertical Integration
John D. Rockefeller, Standard Oil, and the Trust
New Inventions: The Telephone and the Telegraph
Why did the ideas of social Darwinism appeal to many Americans in the late nineteenth century?
J. P. Morgan and Finance Capitalism
Social Darwinism, Laissez-Faire, and the Supreme Court
What factors influenced political life in the late nineteenth century?
Political Participation and Party Loyalty
Sectionalism and the New South
Gender, Race, and Politics
ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: Ida B. Wells and Her Campaign to Stop Lynching
What issues shaped party politics in the late nineteenth century?
Corruption and Party Strife
Garfield’s Assassination and Civil Service Reform
Reform and Scandal: The Campaign of 1884
Henry George and the Politics of Inequality
What role did economic issues play in party realignment?
The Tariff and the Politics of Protection
Railroads, Trusts, and the Federal Government
The Fight for Free Silver
Panic and Depression
Conclusion: Why did business dominate the Gilded Age?
19. The City and Its Workers, 1870-1900
An American Story: Workers build the Brooklyn Bridge
Why did American cities experience explosive growth in the late nineteenth century?
The Urban Explosion: A Global Migration
Racism and the Cry for Immigration Restriction
The Social Geography of the City
ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: Seeing How the Other Half Lives: Jacob Riis, the Flash, and the Birth of Photojournalism
What kinds of work did people do in industrial America?
America’s Diverse Workers
The Family Economy: Women and Children
White-Collar Workers: Managers, "Typewriters," and Salesclerks
Why did the fortunes of the Knights of Labor rise in the late 1870s and decline in the 1890s?
The Great Railroad Strike of 1877
The Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor
Haymarket and the Specter of Labor Radicalism
How did urban industrialism shape home life and the world of leisure?
Domesticity and "Domestics"
How did municipal governments respond to the challenges of urban expansion?
Building Cities of Stone and Steel
City Government and the "Bosses"
New York and the Consolidation of the Capitalist Class
White City or City of Sin?
Conclusion: Who built the cities?
20. Dissent, Depression, and War, 1890-1900
An American Story: Frances Willard helps create the Populist Party
Why did American farmers organize alliances in the late nineteenth century?
The Farmers’ Alliance
The Populist Movement
What led to the labor wars of the 1890s?
The Homestead Lockout
The Cripple Creek Miners’ Strike of 1894
Eugene V. Debs and the Pullman Strike
ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: The Press and the Pullman Strike: Framing Class Conflict
How were women involved in late-nineteenth-century politics?
Frances Willard and the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and the Movement for Woman Suffrage
How did economic problems affect American politics in the 1890s?
The People’s Party and the Election of 1896
Why did the United States largely abandon its isolationist foreign policy in the 1890s?
Markets and Missionaries
The Monroe Doctrine and the Open Door Policy
"A Splendid Little War"
The Debate over American Imperialism
Conclusion: What was the connection between domestic strife and foreign policy?
21. Progressive Reform, 1890-1916
An American Story: Jane Addams founds Hull House
How did grassroots progressives attack the problems of industrial America?
Civilizing the City
Progressives and the Working Class
What were the key tenets of progressive theory?
Reform Darwinism and Social Engineering
Progressive Government: City and State
How did Theodore Roosevelt advance the progressive agenda?
The Square Deal
Roosevelt the Reformer
Roosevelt and Conservation
The Big Stick
The Troubled Presidency of William Howard Taft
How did progressivism evolve during Woodrow Wilson’s first term?
Progressive Insurgency and the Election of 1912
Wilson’s Reforms: Tariff, Banking, and the Trusts
Wilson, Reluctant Progressive
ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: Child Labor
What were the limits of progressive reform?
Progressivism for White Men Only
Conclusion: How did the Progressive Era give rise to the liberal state?
22. World War I: The Progressive Crusade at Home and Abroad, 1914-1920
An American Story: George Browne sees combat on the front lines in France
What was Woodrow Wilson’s foreign policy agenda?
Taming the Americas
The European Crisis
The Ordeal of American Neutrality
The United States Enters the War
What role did the United States play in World War I?
The Call to Arms
The War in France
What impact did the war have on the home front?
The Progressive Stake in the War
Women, War, and the Battle for Suffrage
ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: The Final Push for Woman Suffrage
Rally around the Flag—or Else
What part did Woodrow Wilson play at the Paris peace conference?
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
The Paris Peace Conference
The Fight for the Treaty
Why was America’s transition from war to peace so turbulent?
Economic Hardship and Labor Upheaval
The Red Scare
The Great Migrations of African Americans and Mexicans
Postwar Politics and the Election of 1920
Conclusion: Victory, but at what cost?
23. From New Era to Great Depression, 1920-1932
An American Story: Henry Ford puts America on wheels
How did big business shape the "New Era" of the 1920s?
A Business Government
Promoting Prosperity and Peace Abroad
Automobiles, Mass Production, and Assembly-Line Progress
ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: Advertising in a Consumer Age
In what ways did the Roaring Twenties challenge traditional values?
The New Woman
The New Negro
Entertaining the Masses
The Lost Generation
Why did the relationship between urban and rural America deteriorate in the 1920s?
Rejecting the Undesirables
The Rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan
The Scopes Trial
Al Smith and the Election of 1928
How did President Hoover respond to the economic crash of 1929?
Herbert Hoover: The Great Engineer
The Distorted Economy
The Crash of 1929
Hoover and the Limits of Individualism
What impact did the economic depression have on everyday life?
The Human Toll
Denial and Escape
Conclusion: Why did the hope of the 1920s turn to despair?
24. The New Deal Experiment, 1932-1939
An American Story: Florence Owens struggles to survive in the Great Depression
Why was Franklin D. Roosevelt elected president in 1932?
The Making of a Politician
The Election of 1932
What were the goals and achievements of the first New Deal?
The New Dealers
Banking and Finance Reform
Relief and Conservation Programs
Who opposed the New Deal?
Resistance to Business Reform
Casualties in the Countryside
Politics on the Fringes
Why did the New Deal begin to create a welfare state?
Relief for the Unemployed
ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: Americans Encounter the New Deal
Social Security and Tax Reform
Neglected Americans and the New Deal
What did the New Deal lose support during Roosevelt’s second term as president?
The Election of 1936
Reaction and Recession
The Last of the New Deal Reforms
Conclusion: What were the achievements and limitations of the New Deal?
25. The United States and the Second World War, 1939-1945
An American Story: Colonel Paul Tibbets drops the atomic bomb on Hiroshima
How did isolationism shape American foreign policy in the 1930s?
Roosevelt and Reluctant Isolation
The Good Neighbor Policy
The Price of Isolation
How did war in Europe and Asia influence U.S. foreign policy?
Nazi Aggression and War in Europe
From Neutrality to the Arsenal of Democracy
Japan Attacks America
How did the United States mobilize for war?
ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: Japanese Internment
Building a Citizen Army
Conversion to a War Economy
How did the Allies reverse Axis advances in Europe and the Pacific?
Turning the Tide in the Pacific
The Campaign in Europe
How did war change the American home front?
Women and Families, Guns and Butter
The Double V Campaign
Wartime Politics and the 1944 Election
Reaction to the Holocaust
How did the Allies win the war?
From Bombing Raids to Berlin
The Defeat of Japan
Conclusion: Why did the United States emerge as a superpower at the end of the war?
26. The New World of the Cold War, 1945–1960
An American Story: Congresswoman Helen Gahagan Douglas becomes loyal Truman ally
How did the Cold War begin?
U.S.-Soviet Tensions Emerge
ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: The Emerging Cold War
The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan
Building a National Security State
In what ways did anti-Communism drive policy at home and abroad?
Superpower Rivalry around the Globe
The Domestic Chill: McCarthyism
Why did the U.S. go to war in Korea?
Military Implementation of Containment
From Containment to Rollback to Containment
Korea’s Political Fallout
An Armistice and the War’s Costs
How did Truman’s and Eisenhower’s approaches to the superpower struggle differ?
The "New Look" in Foreign Policy
Applying Containment to Vietnam
Interventions in Latin America and the Middle East
The Nuclear Arms Race
Conclusion: What were the costs and consequences of the Cold War?
27. Postwar Culture and Politics, 1945-1960
An American Story: Vice President Richard Nixon debates Russian premier Nikita Khrushchev
What were the prospects for domestic reform in the Truman years?
Reconverting to a Peacetime Economy
The Fair Deal Falters
Race and Rights in the 1940s
To what extent did Eisenhower dismantle the New Deal?
A Republican "Middle Way"
A Shifting Indian Policy
What fueled the prosperity of the 1950s?
Technology Transforms Agriculture and Industry
The Rise of the Sun Belt
The Democratization of Higher Education
How did economic growth affect American society, politics, and culture?
A Consumer Culture
The Revival of Domesticity and Religion
Television Transforms Culture and Politics
What mobilized African Americans to fight for civil rights in the 1950s?
African Americans Challenge the Supreme Court and the President
ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: The Brown Decision
Montgomery and Mass Protest
Conclusion: What unmet challenges did peace and prosperity mask?
28. Rights, Rebellion, and Reaction, 1960-1974
An American Story: Pauli Murray breaks barriers to fight for civil rights
What were the achievements of JFK’s New Frontier and LBJ’s Great Society?
Kennedy and a New Frontier in the 1960s
Johnson and the War on Poverty
Liberalism at High Tide
Legacies of the Great Society
The Judicial Revolution
How did the black freedom movement evolve?
The Flowering of Civil Rights
The Response in Washington
Black Power and Urban Rebellions
What other social movements emerged in the 1960s?
Native American Protest
Latino Struggles for Justice
Youth Rebellions, the New Left, and the Counterculture
ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: Student Protest
Gay Men and Lesbians Organize
Environmental Activists Mobilize
What were the goals of the new wave of feminism?
A Multifaceted Movement Emerges
Feminist Gains Spark a Countermovement
Why and where did the conservative movement gain ground?
A Grassroots Right
Nixon and the Election of 1968
Conclusion: What were the lasting effects of sixties-era reform?
29. Confronting Limits, 1961-1979
An American Story: Lieutenant Frederick Downs Jr. returns home wounded to a divided country
What led to the United States’ deepening involvement in Vietnam?
Anti-Communism in the Kennedy Years
A Growing War in Southeast Asia
An All-Out Commitment in Vietnam
Those Who Served
How did a war abroad provoke a war at home?
The Antiwar Movement
The Tet Offensive and Steps Toward Peace
The Tumultuous Election of 1968
How did U.S. foreign policy change under Nixon?
Détente with the Soviet Union and China
U.S. Interventions around the World
Nixon’s War in Vietnam
ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: Ending the War in Vietnam
The Legacy of Defeat
What accounted for the growth of conservatism in the 1970s?
The End of the Boom
Nixon Courts the Right
The Election of 1972
The Watergate Scandal
The Ford Presidency and the 1976 Election
What challenges did the Carter Administration face?
A Retreat from Liberalism
Energy and Environmental Reform
Promoting Human Rights Abroad
New Foreign Crises
Conclusion: How did the constraints of the 1970s reshape U.S. policy and politics?
30. Divisions At Home and Abroad in a Conservative Era, 1980-2000
An American Story: Phyllis Schlafly promotes conservatism
What conservative goals were realized during Reagan’s presidency?
Appealing to the New Right and Beyond
Unleashing Free Enterprise
Winners and Losers in a Flourishing Economy
What strategies did liberals use to fight the rightward turn?
Battles in the Courts and Congress
Feminism on the Defensive
The Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement
ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: Protecting Gay and Lesbian Rights
Why did the Cold War intensify and how did it end?
Militarization and Interventions Abroad
The Iran-Contra Scandal
Soviet-American Relations Transformed
A "New World Order"
War in Central America and the Persian Gulf
What led to increased political polarization in the 1990s?
Gridlock in Government
The 1992 Election
Accommodating the Right
Impeaching the President
How did Clinton respond to the challenges of globalization?
The Booming Economy of the 1990s
Debates over Free Trade
Defining America’s Place in a New World Order
Conclusion: What were the legacies of the "Reagan Revolution"?
31. America in a New Century, Since 2000
An American Story: Jose Antonio Vargas faces anti-immigrant sentiments in the U.S.
How did George W. Bush alter the focus of U.S. foreign and domestic policy?
The Disputed Election of 2000
The 9/11 Attacks
Security and Civil Liberties
Unilateralism and the "War on Terror"
Domestic Achievements—and Disasters
What were the strengths and weaknesses of the American economy?
Globalized Labor and Production
Immigration and its Discontents
The New Economy and the Old
What obstacles stood in the way of Obama’s reform agenda?
A Post-Racial America?
Governing with Resistance
Multilateralism in Foreign Policy
How did new social movements change politics?
Civil Rights and Black Lives
Social Media and Activism
What was the significance of the 2016 election?
Platforms, Polls, and Protests
ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: New Media: Bad for Democracy?
Right-wing Populism on the Rise
A Retreat from U.S. Global Leadership
Conclusion: In a deeply polarized America, was there any common ground?
The Declaration of Independence
The Constitution of the United States
Amendments to the Constitution with Annotations (including the six unratified amendments)
II. Government and Demographics
Supreme Court Justices
Population Growth, 1630–2010
Major Trends in Immigration, 1820-2010
About the Authors