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This unprecedented volume shows how and why mid-twentieth-century decolonization transformed societies and cultures and continues to shape today’s world. The introduction explores decolonization as both a historical era and an aspirational movement. A rich collection of primary sources combines the voices of the colonized and the colonizers in Africa, Asia, and throughout the world to recapture the intensity and variety of the independence struggles. Organized chronologically and topically, the documents reveal how and why formal decolonization, once an unimaginable prospect to imperialists, came quickly to seem inevitable. Maps, document headnotes, a chronology, questions to consider, and a bibliography enrich students’ understanding of decolonization and its enduring consequences.
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Table of Contents
European Efforts to Reinvent Overseas ColonialismThe Cold War, Local Collaborators, and the Slowing Pace of ChangeThe Rise of Anticolonial RadicalismThe International Politics of DecolonizationAlgeria’s DecolonizationThe Legacies of Decolonization PART TWO. THE DOCUMENTS1. 1945-1947: Decolonization Becomes Imaginable1. Winston Churchill, "Hands off the British Empire," December 31, 19442. United Nations, United Nations Charter--Preamble and Declaration concerning Non-autonomous Territories, June 26, 19453. Ho Chi Minh, Declaration of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, September 2, 19454. An Appeal of the Vietnamese Bishops in Favor of the Independence of Their Country, September 23, 1945
2. Defining New International Connections
5. Fifth Pan-African Congress, The Challenge to the Colonial Powers, 1945
6. UNESCO, The Statement on Race, July 1950
7. Alfred Sauvy, "Three Worlds, One Planet," August 1952
10. Joseph Kirira and Josiah Kariuki, Song of Africa (Kenyan Song), 1957
3. From Possibilities of Independence to Expectations of Liberation
11. Song for Murang'a Women (Kenyan Song), ca. 1950
16. Georgios Grivas, Report Addressed to Michail Christodolou Mouskos, May 23, 1955
17. Oath of the National Organization of Cypriot Combatants, 1955
26. Visitor, Lift Up the Torch of United Africa, April 12, 195827. Eric Williams, Massa Day Done, March 22, 1961
5. The Contagion of Independence28. Conscience Africaine, Manifesto for Belgian Congo, July 195629. ABAKO, Counter Manifesto for Belgian Congo, August 23, 1956
30. Harold Macmillan, "Wind of Change" Speech, February 3, 196031. Ingrid Jonker, The Child Who Was Shot Dead By Soldiers at Nyanga, 196032. United Nations General Assembly, Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, December 14, 196033. Alvim Pereira, Ten Principles, 196134. Celina Simango, Speech at the International Women's Congress in Moscow, June 196335. Amilcar Cabral, Anonymous Soldiers for the United Nations, December 12, 196236. Zhou Enlai, Conversation with S. V. Chervonenko, April 20, 196537. Fayez A. Sayegh, Zionist Colonialism in Palestine, 196538. Claudia Jones, The Caribbean Community in Britain, 196439. Kwame Nkrumah, Neo-Colonialism: The Last Stage of Imperialism, 1965
AppendixesA Chronology of the Era of Decolonization (1937-1965)Questions for ConsiderationSelected BibliographyIndex