Thinking through Sources for Ways of the World, Volume 1
Third EditionRobert W. Strayer; Eric W. Nelson©2016
A two-volume collection of sources that connects with content in the textbook Ways of the World, Thinking through Sources for Ways of the World, Volume 1 contains 6-8 sources per chapter. These primary sources help you gain additional insight into material in order to have thoughtful discussion during class as well as successfully complete assignments. Additionally, headnotes and questions to consider before each document assist you in approaching the documents and essay questions at the end of each chapter.
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Table of Contents
Volume 1 includes Chapters 1-12.
Volume 2 includes Chapters 12-231. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES History Before Writing: How Do We Know?Source 1.1: A Gatherer Hunter Woman in the Twentieth Century: Nisa: The Life and Words of a !Kung WomanSource 1.2: Lascaux Rock ArtSource 1.3: Female Figurine from ÇatalhüyükSource 1.4: Otzi the Ice ManSource 1.5: Stonehenge2. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES Social Life in the First CivilizationsSource 2.1: Law and Life in Ancient Mesopotamia: The Law Code of Hammurabi, ca. 1750 B.C.E.Source 2.2: The Standard of Ur: Peace Panel and War PanelSource 2.3: The Occupations of Old Egypt: Be a Scribe, ca. 2066–1650 B.C.E.Source 2.4: The Social Relationships of Egyptian Agriculture: Agricultural Scenes from the Tomb of Menna Source 2.5: Social Life in Ancient China: The Book of Songs, ca. 1046–771 B.C.E.Source 2.6: Socializing with Ancestors: Bronze Gui 3. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES Political Authority in Second-Wave CivilizationsSource 3.1: Behistun Inscription c. 500 BCE Source 3.2: In Praise of Athenian Democracy: Pericles: Funeral Oration, 431–430 B.C.E.Source 3.3: Statue of AugustusSource 3.4: Governing a Chinese EmpireSource 3.5: Qin Shihuangdi Funerary ComplexSource 3.6: Governing an Indian Empire: The Writings of Master Han Fei, Third Century B.C.E. 4. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES The "Good Life" in Asian Cultural TraditionsSource 4.1: Reflections from Confucius: Confucius: The Analects, ca. 479–221 B.C.E. Source 4.2: Filial Piety IllustratedSource 4.3: A Daoist Perspective on the Good Life: Loozi: Daodejing, 500 B.C.E.Source 4.4: Reflections from the Hindu Scriptures: Bhagavad Gita, ca. Fifth to Second Century B.C.E.Source 4.5: Reflections from Jesus: The Gospel of Matthew, ca. 70–100 C.E.Source 4.6: Toward "Mature Manhood": Ladder of Divine Ascent 5. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES Patriarchy and Women’s VoicesSource 5.1: A Greek Expression of Patriarchy: Aristotle: "On a Good Wife," ca. 330 B.C.E. Source 5.2: An Indian Expression of Patriarchy: The Laws of Manu, 200–400 C.E. Source 5.3: A Chinese Woman’s Instructions to Her Daughters: Ban Zhoo: Lessons for Women, Late First Century C.E. Source 5.4: An Alternative to Patriarchy in India: Psalms of the Sisters, First Century B.C.E.Source 5.5: Roman Women in Protest: Livy: History of Rome, Early First Century C.E. 6. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES Art and the Maya EliteSource 6.1: Shield Jaguar and Lady Xok, A Royal Couple of YaxchilanSource 6.2: The Presentation of CaptivesSource 6.3: A Bloodletting RitualSource 6.4: The Ball GameSource 6.5: A Maya Ruler Relaxing 7. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES Life and Travel on the Silk RoadsSource 7.1: Dangers and Assistance on the Silk Roads: Silk Road Merchants Encounter BanditsSource 7.2: Advice for Merchants: Francesco Pegolotti: Advice for European Merchants Traveling to China, ca. 1340Source 7.3: Stopping at a CaravanseraiSource 7.4: Buddhism on the Silk Roads: Regulations for a Community of Monks, Third Century C.E.; Faxian: A Record of the Buddhist Kingdoms, ca. 416Source 7.5: Christianity on the Silk Roads: The Jesus Sutras, 635–1005Source 7.6: Letters from the Silk Road: From a Soldier on Guard Duty, 103 B.C.E–40 C.E.; From an Abandoned Wife, Early Fourth Century C.E. 8. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES The Making of Japanese CivilizationSource 8.1: Japanese Political Ideals: Shotoku: The Seventeen Article Constitution, 604 Source 8.2: The Uniqueness of Japan: Kitabatake Chikafusa: The Chronicle of the Direct Descent of Gods and Sovereigns, 1339Source 8.3: Social Life at Court: Sei Shonagon: Pillow Book, ca. 1000Source 8.4: Japanese Zen Buddhism: Su Dongpo in Straw Hat and Wooden ShoesSource 8.5: The Way of the Warrior: Shiba Yoshimasa: Advice to Young Samurai, ca. 1400: Imagawa Ryoshun: The Imagawa Letter, 1412Source 8.6: Samurai and the "Arts of Peace" 9. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES Voices of IslamSource 9.1: The Voice of Allah: The Quran, Seventh Century C.E.Source 9.2: The Voice of the Prophet Muhammad: The Hadiths, Eighth and Ninth CenturiesSource 9.3: The Voice of the Law: The Sharia, Ninth CenturySource 9.4: The Voice of the Sufis: Inscription in Rumi’s Tomb, Thirteenth Century; Rumi: Poem, Thirteenth Century; Rumi: Mathnawi, Thirteenth CenturySource 9.5: Islamic Practice in West Africa: Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa, 1354Source 9.6: Men and Women at Worship 10. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES The Crusades as Cultural EncounterSource 10.1: A Western Christian Perspective: Pope Urban II: Speech at Clermont, 1095Source 10.2: Jewish Perspectives on the Crusades: An Account of Attacks on Jews during the First Crusade, Early to Mid-Twelfth CenturySource 10.3: Muslim Perspectives on the Crusades: Ibn al-Athir: The Complete History, ca. 1231Source 10.4: Jerusalem and the Crusades: The Looting of Jerusalem, 1099; How Jerusalem Was Captured by Saladin, 1187Source 10.5: A Byzantine Perspective on the Crusades: Nicetas Choniates: The Sack of Constantinople, 1204Source 10.6: More than Conflict: Usmah Ibn Munqidh: Christian Piety and Muslim Piety, Mid-Twelfth Century; Fulcher of Chartres: The Latins in the East, Early Twelfth Century 11. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES Living and Dying During the Black DeathSource 11.1: The Black Death in the Islamic World: Ibn al-Wardi: Report of the Pestilence, 1348Source 11.2: The Black Death in Western Europe: Giovanni Boccaccio: The Decameron, Mid-Fourteenth CenturySource 11.3: The Black Death in Byzantium: Emperor John VI of Byzantium: Historarum, Mid to Late Fourteenth CenturySource 11.4: Religious Responses in the Islamic World: Ibn Kathir: The Beginning and the End: On History, ca. 1350–1351Source 11.5: Religious Responses in the Christian World: The Flagellants; A Culture of DeathSource 11.6: The Black Death and European Jews: Jacob Von Königshofen: About the Great Plague and the Burning of the Jews, ca. Early Fifteenth CenturySource 11.7: A Government’s Response to the Plague: Ordinances against the Spread of Plague, Pistoia, 1348 12. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES Early Encounters; First ImpressionsSource 12.1: Cadamosto in a West African Chiefdom: Alvise da Cadamosto: On Meeting with Budomel, 1455Source 12.2: Vasco da Gama at Calicut, India: A Journal of the First Voyage of Vasco da Gama, 1498Source 12.3: Celebrating de Gama’s Arrival in CalicutSource 12.4: Columbus in the Caribbean: Christopher Columbus: Letter to Ferdinand and Isabella, 1493Source 12.5: Columbus Engraved: Columbus Arriving on Hispaniola 13. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES The Spanish and the Aztecs: From Encounter to Conquest (1519-1521)Source 13.1: The Meeting of Cortés and Moctezuma: A Spanish View: Bernal Díaz: The True History of the Conquest of New Spain, Mid-Sixteenth CenturySource 13.2: The Meeting of Cortés and Moctezuma: An Aztec Account: Fray Bernardino de Sahagún: The Florentine Codex, Mid-Sixteenth CenturySource 13.3: Images of Encounter: Moctezuma and Cortés; The Massacre of the NoblesSource 13.4: Conquest and Victory: The Fall of Tenochtitlan from a Spanish Perspective: Francisco de Aguilar: Brief Record of the Conquest of New Spain, ca. 1560Source 13.5: Defeat: The Fall of Tenochtitlan from an Aztec Perspective: Fray Bernardino de Sahagún: The Florentine Codex, Mid-Sixteenth CenturySource 13.6: The Battle of Tenochtitlan Source 13.7: Lamentation: The Aftermath of Defeat: Cantares Mexicanos, Late Sixteenth Century 14. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES Voices from the Slave TradeSource 14.1: The Journey to Slavery: Olaudah Equiano: The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, 1789Source 14.2: The Business of the Slave Trade: Thomas Phillips: A Journal of a Voyage Made in the Hannibal of London, 1694 Source 14.3: The Slave Trade and the Kingdom of Kongo: King Affonso I: Letters to King João of Portugal, 1526 Source 14.4: The Slave Trade and the Kingdom of Asante: Osei Bonsu: Conversation with Joseph Dupuis, 1820Source 14.5: Images of the Slave Trade: Sale of Slaves in West Africa; The Slave Ship Wildfire; Advertisement for a Slave Auction in Charleston, SCSource 14.6: Data: Patterns of the Slave Trade: Voyages and Slave Rebellion: An Aggregate Statistic; Changing Patterns of the Slave Trade 15. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES Renewal and Reform in the Early Modern WorldSource 15.1: Luther’s Protest: Martin Luther: Table Talk, Early Sixteenth CenturySource 15.2: Calvinism and Catholicism: Calvinists Destroying Statues in a Catholic Church, 1566Source 15.3: Progress and Enlightenment: Marquis de Condorcet: Sketch of the Progress of the Human Mind, 1793–1794Source 15.4: Art and Enlightenment: Joseph Wright, A Philosopher Giving a Lecture on the Orrery Source 15.5: The Wahhabi Perspective on Islam: Abdullah Wahhab: History and Doctrines of the Wahhabis, 1803 Source 15.6: The Poetry of Kabir: Kabir: Poetry, ca. Late Fifteenth Century Source 15.7: Religious Syncretism in Indian Art: Kumbhaka 16. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES Claiming RightsSource 16.1: The French Revolution and the "Rights of Man": The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 1789Source 16.2: Representing the Declaration: Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (Painting)Source 16.3: Rights and National Independence: Simón Bolívar: The Jamaica Letter, 1815Source 16.4: Rights and Slavery: "Reason and Nature": All Mortals Are Equal, It Is Not Birth but Virtue That Makes the Difference Source 16.5: Rights and Slavery: An African American Voice: Frederick Douglass: What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?, 1852Source 16.6: The Rights of Women: "Frenchwomen Freed"Source 16.7: The Rights of Women: An American Feminist Voice: Elizabeth Cady Stanton: The Solitude of Self, 1892 17. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES Experiencing the Early Industrial RevolutionSource 17.1: The Experience of an English Factory Worker: Elizabeth Bentley: Factory WorkerTestimony, 1831; William Harter, Mill Owner: Testimony, 1832Source 17.2: Urban Living Conditions: Friedrich Engels: The Condition of the Working Class in England, 1844 Source 17.3: Another View of Factory Life: Outside the FactorySource 17.4: A Weaver’s Lament: Only a Weaver, 1860sSource 17.5: Protest and Song: Eugène Pottier: The Internationale, 1871Source 17.6: Railroads and the Middle Class: The Railroad as a Symbol of the Industrial EraSource 17.7: Inequality: Capital and Labour 18. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES Colonial India: Experience and ResponseSource 18.1: Images of Colonial Rule: A British Breakfast in India; Tiger Hunting in Colonial India; The British and Indian Princes; Blowing from a GunSource 18.2: Seeking Western Education: Ram Mohan Roy: Letter to Lord Amherst, 1823Source 18.3: The Indian Rebellion: Prince Feroze Shah: The Azamgarh Proclamation, 1857Source 18.4: The Credits and Debits of British Rule in India: Dadabhai Naoroji: Speech to a London Audience, 1871Source 18.5: Gandhi on Modern Civilization: Mahatma Gandhi: Indian Home Rule, 1909 19. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES Japan and the West in the Nineteenth CenturySource 19.1: Continuing Japanese Isolation: An Edict of Expulsion, 1825Source 19.2: The Debate: Expel the Barbarians: Tokugawa Nariaki: Memorial on the American Demand for a Treaty, 1853Source 19.3: The Debate: A Sumo Wrestler and a ForeignerSource 19.4: The Debate: Eastern Ethics and Western Science: Sakuma Shozan: Reflections on My Errors, mid-1850sSource 19.5: Westernization: Women and WesternizationSource 19.6: A Critique of Westernization: Critique of Wholesale WesternizationSource 19.7: War and EmpireSource 19.8: Japan in the Early Twentieth Century: Okuma Shigenobu: Fifty Years of New Japan, 1907–1908 20. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES Experiencing World War ISources 20.1: Experiences on the Battlefront: Julian Grenfell: Letter from a British Officer in the Trenches, November 18, 1914; John Nash: Over the Top, 1918: Hugo Mueller: Letter from a German Soldier on the Western Front, 1915; Behari Lal: Letter from a Soldier in the British Indian Army, 1917Sources 20.2: On the Home Front: Women of Britain Say –– "Go!," 1915; Keep the Home Fires Burning, 1915; Editha von Krell: Recollections of Four Months Working in a German Munitions Factory, 1917; Berlin Police Reports, 1915 Sources 20.3: In the Aftermath of the Great War: Otto Dix: Prague Street, 1920; Erich Maria Remarque: All Quiet on the Western Front, 1929; Nar Diouf: A Senegalese Veteran’s Oral Testimony, 1919 21. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES Experiencing StalinismSource 21.1: Stalin on Stalinism: Joseph Stalin: The Results of the First Five-Year Plan, 1933Source 21.2: Collectivization: A Stalinist Vision: The Day of Harvest and Collectivization, 1930Source 21.3: Living through Collectivization: Anna Akimovna Dubova: "Branded Kulaks and Dispossessed," 1928–1929; Letter from Feigin to Ordzhonikidze, April 9, 1932; Leaving the Collective Farms, 1937Source 21.4: Industrialization and Religion: A Stalinist Vision: Religion Is the Enemy of Industrialization Source 21.5: Living through Stalinist Industrialization: Personal Accounts of Soviet Industrialization, 1930s: Letter in a Newspaper from a Tatar Electrician; Newspaper Commentary by an Engineer, 1938; Letter to a Soviet Official from a Worker, 1938; Letter from a Student to His Teacher; Two Comments from Factory Workers Found in Soviet Archives, 1930s; Entry from a Worker’s Diary, 1936; Comment from an Anonymous Communist in Soviet Archives, 1938Source 21.6: Living through the Stalinist Terror: Irina Kakhovskaya: Arrest and Interrogation, 1937; Eugenia Ginsberg: A Day in Kolyma, 1939; Inna Shikheeva-Gaister: Sending a Parcel, 1938 22. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES Articulating IndependenceSource 22.1: Declaring Vietnam’s Independence: Declaration of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, September 2, 1945Source 22.2: Vietnam’s Independence: 50 Years Later: Fiftieth Anniversary of Vietnamese IndependenceSource 22.3: India’s "Tryst with Destiny": Jawaharlal Nehru: Independence Day Speech, August 14, 1947Source 22.4: Another View of India’s Struggle for Independence: Gandhi and the Fight against British ColonialismSource 22.5: One Africa: Kwame Nkrumah: Africa Must Unite, 1963Source 22.6: South African "Independence": South African ElectionSource 22.7: Independence as Threat: Alvim Pereira: Ten Principles, 1961 23. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES The Future as HistorySource 23.1: Looking Ahead from 1900: John E. Watkins: "What May Happen in the Next Hundred Years," 1900 Source 23.2: Imagining the Future of Technology: Air Battles and Air Freight in the Future; The Horse as a Curiosity; The School of the Future; A Video-Telephone in the Year 2000Source 23.3: The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948Source 23.4: Throwing Off Europe: Frantz Fanon: The Wretched of the Earth, 1961Source 23.5: Predicting 2100: "The Last Hours"Source 23.6: "What’s Possible?"