# The Practice of Statistics

## Fourth EditionDaren S. Starnes; Dan Yates; David S. Moore

©2012*The Practice of Statistics, Fourth Edition* directly reflects the content for the AP® Statistics course, providing students with the most effective text for learning statistics and succeeding on the AP® Exam.

## Table of Contents

**Overview: What is Statistics?**

This abridged and more focused introductory section provides students with an engaging, big picture view of what Statistics is all about.

**Chapter 1 Exploring Data**

Introduction Data Analysis: Making Sense of Data

Introduction Data Analysis: Making Sense of Data

This brief introduction includes the material on data, individuals, and variables from TPS 3e Chapter P. The idea of inference is previewed here.

**1.1 Analyzing Categorical Data**

This section combines the material on univariate categorical data analysis from Section 1.1 of TPS 3e with the material on bivariate categorical data analysis from Section 4.2 of TPS 3e. The idea of an association between two variables is introduced. Simpson’s paradox is included as an optional topic.

**1.2 Displaying Quantitative Data with Graphs**

1.3 Describing Quantitative Data with Numbers

Chapter Review and AP Statistics Practice Test

1.3 Describing Quantitative Data with Numbers

Chapter Review and AP Statistics Practice Test

**Chapter 2 Modeling Distributions of Data**

2.1 Describing Location in a Distribution

2.1 Describing Location in a Distribution

Cumulative relative frequency curves (ogives) are now included in this section with percentiles. Linear transformations and their effects on shape, center, and spread are introduced here in connection with z-scores .Chebyshev’s Inequality is de-emphasized.

**2.2 Normal Distributions**

Chapter Review and AP Statistics Practice Test

Chapter Review and AP Statistics Practice Test

**Chapter 3 Describing Relationships**

3.1 Scatterplots and Correlation

3.2 Least-Squares Regression

Chapter Review and AP Statistics Practice Test

3.1 Scatterplots and Correlation

3.2 Least-Squares Regression

Chapter Review and AP Statistics Practice Test

*Note: TPS 3e Chapter 4 has been omitted; the content has been redistributed.*

**Chapter 4 Designing Studies**

Several new data-based activities have been added to illustrate key concepts and to reinforce the connection between data production and data analysis.

**4.1 Sampling and Surveys**

Includes a more thorough discussion of stratified random sampling and cluster sampling.

**4.2 Experiments**

The idea of a lurking variable and the concept of confounding are examined here.

**4.3 Using Studies Wisely**

This includes the material on scope of inference from TPS 3e Section 4.3 Establishing Causation and an optional subsection on Data Ethics.

**Chapter Review and AP Statistics Practice Test**

**Cumulative AP Test**

**Chapter 5 Probability: What Are the Chances?**

Sections 5.2 and 5.3 have been reorganized for smoother presentation of basic rules of probability. More examples with two-way tables have been added.

**5.1 Randomness, Probability, and Simulation**

Greater emphasis has been placed on using simulation as a tool to estimate probability.

**5.2 Probability Rules**

5.3 Conditional Probability and Independence

5.3 Conditional Probability and Independence

**Chapter Review and AP Statistics Practice Test**

**Chapter 6 Random Variables**

Note consolidation of Chapters 7 and 8 of TPS 3e into one chapter for TPS 4e.

**6.1 Discrete and Continuous Random Variables**

6.2 Transforming and Combining Random Variables

6.2 Transforming and Combining Random Variables

This section has been completely rewritten. Parallels between linear transformations of data and random variables are highlighted. New examples should make these topics seem less abstract.

**6.3 Binomial and Geometric Random Variables**

Decreased emphasis on algebraic properties of geometric random variables. Normal approximation to the binomial distribution is included as an optional topic.

**Chapter Review and AP Statistics Practice Test**

**Chapter 7 Sampling Distributions**

Several new activities (German tanks, Reese’s pieces, Rice University CLT applet) have been added to give students more concrete experience in working with sampling distributions.

**7.1 What is a Sampling Distribution?**

Increased focus on the shape, center, and spread of sampling distributions. Bias and variability are examined for a variety of statistics.

**7.2 Sample Proportions**

7.3 Sample Means

Chapter Review and AP Statistics Practice Test

7.3 Sample Means

Chapter Review and AP Statistics Practice Test

**Cumulative AP Test**

Note reversal of section order from previous edition in new Chapters 8, 9, and 10—proportions first to match sampling distributions chapter.

**Chapter 8 Estimating with Confidence**

No calculation of confidence intervals for µ with sigma known.

**8.1 Confidence Intervals: the Basics**

8.2 Estimating a Population Proportion

8.3 Estimating a Population Mean

Chapter Review and AP Statistics Practice Test

8.2 Estimating a Population Proportion

8.3 Estimating a Population Mean

Chapter Review and AP Statistics Practice Test

**Chapter 9 Testing a Claim**

Note consolidation of Chapters 11 and 12 in TPS 3e into one chapter. No performing significance tests for µ with sigma known.

**9.1 Significance Tests: the Basics**

The concepts of Type I error, Type II error, and power are discussed here.

**9.2 Tests about a Population Proportion**

9.3 Tests about a Population Mean

Chapter Review and AP Statistics Practice Test

9.3 Tests about a Population Mean

Chapter Review and AP Statistics Practice Test

**Chapter 10 Comparing Two Populations or Groups**

This chapter includes greater emphasis on the distinction between inference based on random sampling and inference for randomized experiments.

**10.1 Comparing Two Proportions**

10.2 Comparing Two Means

Chapter Review and AP Statistics Practice Test

10.2 Comparing Two Means

Chapter Review and AP Statistics Practice Test

**Cumulative AP Test**

**Chapter 11 Inference for Distributions of Categorical Data**

**11.1 Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test**

11.2 Inference for Two-Way Tables

Chapter Review and AP Statistics Practice Test

11.2 Inference for Two-Way Tables

Chapter Review and AP Statistics Practice Test

**Chapter 12 More on Regression**

12.1 Inference for Linear Regression

12.2 Nonlinear Relationships: Transforming to Achieve Linearity

12.1 Inference for Linear Regression

12.2 Nonlinear Relationships: Transforming to Achieve Linearity

Rewritten treatment of TPS3e’s Section 4.1.

**Chapter Review and AP Statistics Practice Test**

**Cumulative AP Test**