The Making of the West, Volume 1
Seventh EditionLynn Hunt; Thomas R. Martin; Barbara Rosenwein; Bonnie Smith©2022
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A readable, chronological text that explains western civilization in a global context
Designed with students in mind, The Making of the West has all of the tools you will need to understand the cross-cultural, global exchanges that shaped Western history. Achieve for The Making of the West provides the most comprehensive set of tools to help you study, including an interactive online textbook, adaptive quizzing, the companion reader Sources of The Making of the West, a variety of assessment and assignment options, and more.
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Table of Contents
The Combined Volume includes all chapters.
Volume 1 includes Chapters 1-17.
Volume 2 includes Chapters 14-29.
NOTE: Achieve for The Making of the West 7e includes additional activities and assessments for the book content. Along with the interactive e-books for the main text and the companion source reader, Achieve provides quizzes for the source features in the book and the documents in the companion reader, LearningCurve adaptive quizzing, study and writing skills tutorials, and a variety of autograded exercises that help students develop their historical thinking skills. Many of these resources are set up for quick use in the pre-built courses in Achieve, which can be customized easily, and Achieve also allows instructors to create quiz questions and upload their own documents.
Preface: Why This Book This Way
Versions and Supplements
Maps, Figures, and Special Features
Authors’ Note: The b.c.e./c.e. Dating System
Early Western Civilization, 400,000–1000 b.c.e.
From the Stone Age to Near Eastern Civilization, 400,000–1000 b.c.e. b.c.e.
Life and Change in the Stone Age ■ The Emergence of Cities in the Near East, 4 –2350 b.c.e. ■ Metals and Empire Making: The Akkadians and the Ur III Dynasty, c. 2350–c. 2 b.c.e. ■ The Achievements of the Assyrians, the Babylonians, and the Canaanites, 2 –1 b.c.e.
Egypt, the First Unified Nation, 3050–1000 b.c.e.
From the Unification of Egypt to the Old Kingdom, 3050–2190 b.c.e. ■ The Middle and New Kingdoms in Egypt, 2061–1081 b.c.e.
The Hittites, the Minoans, and the Mycenaeans, 2200–1000 b.c.e.
The Hittites, 1750–1200 b.c.e. ■ The Minoans, 2200–1400 b.c.e. ■ The Mycenaeans, 1800–1 b.c.e. ■ The Violent End to Early Western Civilization, 1200–1 b.c.e.
Chapter 1 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Hammurabi’s Laws for Physicians
Contrasting Views: The Gains and the Losses of Life in Civilization versus Life in Nature
Terms of History: Civilization
Environment Matters: The Nile River
Near East Empires and the Reemergence of Civilization in Greece, 1000–500 b.c.e.
From Dark Age to Empire in the Near East, 1000–500 b.c.e.
The New Empire of Assyria, 900–600 b.c.e. ■ The Neo-Babylonian Empire, 600–539 b.c.e. ■ The Persian Empire, 557–500 b.c.e. ■ The Israelites, Origins to 539 b.c.e.
The Reemergence of Greek Civilization, 1000–750 b.c.e.
The Greek Dark Age ■ The Values of the Olympic Games ■ Homer, Hesiod, and Divine Justice in Greek Myth
The Creation of the Greek City-State, 750–500 b.c.e.
The Physical Environment of the Greek City-State ■ Trade and "Colonization," 800–580 b.c.e. ■ Citizenship and Freedom in the Greek City-State
New Directions for the Greek City-State, 750–500 b.c.e.
Oligarchy in the City-State of Sparta, 700–500 b.c.e. ■ Tyranny in the City-State of Corinth, 657–585 b.c.e. ■ Democracy in the City-State of Athens, 700–500 b.c.e. ■ New Ways of Thought and Expression in Greece, 630–500 b.c.e.
Chapter 2 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Zaleucus’s Law Code for a Greek City-State in Seventh-Century b.c.e. Italy
Contrasting Views: Persians Debate the Best Form of Government
Terms of History: The State
Environment Matters: Calydonian Boar Hunt
The Greek Golden Age, c. 500–c. 400 b.c.e.
Wars between Persia and Greece, 499–479 b.c.e.
From the Ionian Revolt to the Battle of Marathon, 499–490 b.c.e. ■ The Great Persian Invasion, 480–479 b.c.e.
Athenian Confidence in the Golden Age, 478–431 b.c.e.
The Establishment of the Athenian Empire ■ Radical Democracy and Pericles’ Leadership, 461–431 b.c.e. ■ The Urban Landscape in Athens
Tradition and Innovation in Athens’s Golden Age
Religious Tradition in a Period of Change ■ Women, Slaves, and Metics ■ Innovative Ideas in Education and Philosophy ■ Transformations in Sculpture, History, and Medicine ■ The Development of Public Drama: Tragedy and Comedy
The End of Athens’s Golden Age, 431–403 b.c.e.
The Peloponnesian War, 431–404 b.c.e. ■ Athens Defeated: Tyranny and Civil War, 404–403 b.c.e.
Chapter 3 Review
Primary Source Analysis: How to Argue Both Sides of a Case
Contrasting Views: The Nature of Women and Marriage
Terms of History: Democracy
Environment Matters: Triremes and Deforestation
From the Classical to the Hellenistic World, 400–30 b.c.e.
Classical Greece after the Peloponnesian War, 400–350 b.c.e.
Athens’s Recovery after the Peloponnesian War ■ The Execution of Socrates, 399 b.c.e. ■ The Philosophy of Plato ■ Aristotle, Scientist and Philosopher ■ Greek Political Disunity
The Rise of Macedonia, 359–323 b.c.e.
Macedonian Power and Philip II, 359–336 b.c.e. ■ The Rule of Alexander the Great, 336–323 b.c.e.
The Hellenistic Kingdoms, 323–30 b.c.e.
Creating New Kingdoms ■ The Layers of Hellenistic Society ■ The End of the Hellenistic Kingdoms
The Arts and Sciences under Royal Support ■ Philosophy for a New Age ■ Scientific Innovation ■ Cultural and Religious Transformations
Chapter 4 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Epigrams on Love and Sex by Women Poets
Contrasting Views: Roman Attitudes toward Cleopatra VII, the Last Hellenistic Queen
Terms of History: Hellenistic
Environment Matters: A Theater in a Hill
The Rise of Rome and Its Republic, 753–44 b.c.e.
Roman Social and Religious Traditions
Roman Moral Values ■ The Patron-Client System ■ The Roman Family ■ Education for Public Life ■ Public and Private Religion
From Monarchy to Republic
Roman Society under the Kings, 753–509 b.c.e. ■ The Early Roman Republic, 509–287 b.c.e.
Roman Imperialism and Its Consequences
Expansion in Italy, 500–220 b.c.e. ■ Wars with Carthage and in the East, 264–121 b.c.e. ■ Greek Influence on Roman Literature and the Arts ■ Stresses on Society from Imperialism
Civil War and the Destruction of the Republic
The Gracchus Brothers and Violence in Politics, 133–121 b.c.e. ■ Marius and the Origin of Client Armies, 107–100 b.c.e. ■ Sulla and Civil War, 91–78 b.c.e. ■ Julius Caesar and the Collapse of the Republic, 83–44 b.c.e.
Chapter 5 Review
Primary Source Analysis: The Rape and Suicide of Lucretia
Contrasting Views: What Was Julius Caesar Like?
Terms of History: Republic
Environment Matters: Roman Sewers
The Creation of the Roman Empire, 44 b.c.e.–284 c.e.
From Republic to Empire, 44 b.c.e.–14 c.e.
Civil War, 44–27 b.c.e. ■ The Creation of the Principate, 27 b.c.e.–14 c.e. ■ Daily Life in the Rome of Augustus ■ Changes in Education, Literature, and Art in Augustus’s Rome
Politics and Society in the Early Roman Empire
The Perpetuation of the Principate after Augustus, 14–180 c.e. ■ Life in the Roman Golden Age, 96–180 c.e.
The Emergence of Christianity in the Early Roman Empire
Jesus and His Teachings ■ Growth of a New Religion ■ Competing Religious Beliefs
From Stability to Crisis in the Third Century c.e.
Threats to the Northern and Eastern Frontiers of the Early Roman Empire ■ Uncontrolled Spending, Natural Disasters, and Political Crisis, 193–284 c.e.
Chapter 6 Review
Primary Source Analysis: A Roman Stoic Philosopher on the Capabilities of Women
Contrasting Views: Christians in the Empire: Conspirators or Faithful Subjects?
Terms of History: Empire
Environment Matters: Army Hospital at Novae
The Transformation of the Roman Empire, 284–600 c.e.
From Principate to Dominate in the Late Roman Empire, 284–395
The Political Transformation and Division of the Roman Empire ■ The Social Consequences of Financial Pressures ■ From the Great Persecution to Religious Freedom
The Official Christianization of the Empire, 312–c. 540
Polytheism and Christianity in Competition ■ The Struggle for Clarification in Christian Belief ■ The Emergence of Christian Monks
Non-Roman Kingdoms in the Western Roman Empire, c. 370–550s
Non-Roman Migrations into the Western Roman Empire ■ Social and Cultural Transformation in the Western Roman Empire
The Roman Empire in the East, c. 500–565
Imperial Society in the Eastern Roman Empire ■ The Reign of Emperor Justinian, 527–565 ■ The Preservation of Classical Traditions in the Late Roman Empire
Chapter 7 Review
Primary Source Analysis: The Edict of Milan on Religious Freedom
Contrasting Views: Debate: Did Romans or Huns Better Protect Life, Law, and Freedom?
Terms of History: Barbarian
Environment Matters: The Justinianic Plague
The Heirs of Rome: Islam, Byzantium, and Europe, 600–750
Islam: A New Religion and a New Empire
Nomads and City Dwellers ■ The Prophet Muhammad and the Faith of Islam ■ Growth of Islam, c. 610–632 ■ The Caliphs, Muhammad’s Successors, 632–750 ■ Peace and Prosperity in Islamic Lands
Wars on the Frontiers, c. 570–750 ■ From an Urban to a Rural Way of Life ■ New Military and Cultural Forms ■ Religion, Politics, and Iconoclasm
Western Europe: A Medley of Kingdoms
Frankish Kingdoms with Roman Roots ■ Economic Activity in a Peasant Society ■ The Powerful in Merovingian Society ■ Christianity and Classical Culture in the British Isles ■ Unity in Spain, Division in Italy ■ Political Tensions and the Power of the Pope
Chapter 8 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Praising a Merovingian Queen
Contrasting Views: Icons: Idols or Aids to Worship?
Terms of History: Medieval
Environment Matters: Scratch Plow
From Centralization to Fragmentation, 750–1050
The Byzantine Emperor and Local Elites
Imperial Power ■ The Macedonian Renaissance, c. 870–c. 1025 ■ The Dynatoi: A New Landowning Elite ■ The Formation of Eastern Europe and Kievan Rus
The Rise and Fall of the Abbasid Caliphate
The Abbasid Caliphate, 750–936 ■ Regional Diversity in Islamic Lands ■ Unity of Commerce and Language ■ The Islamic Renaissance, c. 790–c. 1050
The Carolingian Empire
The Rise of the Carolingians ■ Charlemagne and His Kingdom, 768–814 ■ The Carolingian Renaissance, c. 790–c. 900 ■ Charlemagne’s Successors, 814–911 ■ Land and Power ■ Viking, Muslim, and Magyar Invasions, c. 790–955
After the Carolingians: The Emergence of Local Rule
Public Power and Private Relationships ■ Warriors and Warfare ■ Efforts to Contain Violence ■ Political Communities in Italy, England, and France ■ Emperors and Kings in Central and Eastern Europe
Chapter 9 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Ibn ‘Abd Rabbihi Celebrates a Military Campaign in Verse
Contrasting Views: Charlemagne: Roman Emperor, Father of Europe, or the Chief Bishop?
Terms of History: Feudalism
Environment Matters: Digging Ditches
Commercial Quickening and Religious Reform, 1050–1150
The Commercial Revolution
Fairs, Towns, and Cities ■ Organizing Crafts and Commerce ■ Communes: Self-Government for the Towns ■ The Commercial Revolution in the Countryside
Beginnings of Reform ■ The Gregorian Reform and the Investiture Conflict, 1075–1122 ■ The Sweep of Reform ■ New Monastic Orders of Poverty
Calling the Crusade ■ The First Crusade ■ The Crusader States ■ The Disastrous Second Crusade ■ The Long-Term Impact of the Crusades
The Revival of Monarchies
Reconstructing the Empire at Byzantium ■ England under Norman Rule ■ Praising the King of France ■ Surviving as Emperor
Chapter 10 Review
Primary Source Analysis: The First Crusade from the Muslim Point of View
Contrasting Views: Henry IV
Terms of History: The Commercial Revolution
Environment Matters: Medieval Tanneries
The Flowering of the Middle Ages, 1150–1215
New Schools and Churches
The New Learning and the Rise of the University ■ Architectural Style: From Romanesque to Gothic
Governments as Institutions
England: Unity through Common Law ■ France: Consolidation and Conquest ■ Germany: The Revived Monarchy of Frederick Barbarossa ■ Eastern Europe and Byzantium: Fragmenting Realms
The Growth of a Vernacular High Culture
The Troubadours: Poets of Love and Play ■ The Birth of Epic and Romance Literature
Religious Fervor and Crusade
New Religious Orders in the Cities ■ Disastrous Crusades to the Holy Land ■ Victorious Crusades in Europe and on Its Frontiers
Chapter 11 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Two Letters from Two Lovers
Contrasting Views: Magna Carta
Terms of History: Gothic
Environment Matters: Medieval Roads
The Medieval Synthesis — and Its Cracks, 1215–1340
The Church’s Mission
Innocent III and the Fourth Lateran Council ■ Inquisition ■ Lay Piety ■ Jews as Outcasts
Reconciling This World and the Next
The Achievements and Failures of Scholasticism ■ New Syntheses in Writing and Music ■ Gothic Art
The Politics of Control
The Weakening of the Empire ■ Louis IX and a New Ideal of Kingship ■ The Birth of Representative Institutions ■ The Weakening of the Papacy ■ The Rise of the Signori ■ The Mongol Takeover ■ The Great Famine
Chapter 12 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Thomas Aquinas Writes about Sex
Contrasting Views: The Mongols: Instruments of God or Cruel Invaders?
Terms of History: Inquisition
Environment Matters: The Great Famine as Hell
Crisis and Renaissance, 1340–1492
Crisis: Disease, War, and Schism
The Plague Comes to Europe ■ The Hundred Years’ War, 1337–1453 ■ The Ottoman Conquest of Constantinople, 1453 ■ The Great Schism, 1378–1417
The Renaissance: New Forms of Thought and Expression
Renaissance Humanism ■ The Arts
New Political Formations in Eastern Europe ■ Powerful States in Western Europe ■ Republics ■ The Tools of Power
Chapter 13 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Wat Tyler’s Rebellion (1381)
Contrasting Views: Joan of Arc: Who Was "the Maid"?
Terms of History: Renaissance
Environment Matters: Yersinia Pestis
Global Encounters and the Shock of the Reformation, 1492–1560
The Discovery of New Worlds
Portuguese Explorations ■ The Voyages of Columbus ■ A New Era in Slavery ■ Conquering the New World ■ The Columbian Exchange
The Protestant Reformation
The Invention of Printing ■ Popular Piety and Christian Humanism ■ Martin Luther’s Challenge ■ Protestantism Spreads and Divides ■ The Contested Church of England
Reshaping Society through Religion
Protestant Challenges to the Social Order ■ New Forms of Discipline ■ Catholic Renewal
Striving for Mastery
Courtiers and Princes ■ Dynastic Wars ■ Financing War ■ Divided Realms
Chapter 14 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Columbus Describes His First Voyage (1493)
Contrasting Views: Martin Luther: Holy Man or Heretic?
Terms of History: Protestant Reformation
Environment Matters: Smallpox Kills Native Peoples
Wars of Religion and the Clash of Worldviews, 1560–1648
Religious Conflicts Threaten State Power, 1560–1618
French Wars of Religion, 1562–1598 ■ Dutch Revolt against Spain ■ Elizabeth I’s Defense of English Protestantism ■ The Clash of Faiths and Empires in Eastern Europe
The Thirty Years’ War, 1618–1648
Origins and Course of the War ■ The Effects of Constant Fighting ■ The Peace of Westphalia, 1648
Economic Crisis and Realignment
From Growth to Recession ■ Consequences for Daily Life ■ The Economic Balance of Power
The Rise of Science and a Scientific Worldview
The Scientific Revolution ■ The Natural Laws of Politics ■ The Arts in an Age of Crisis ■ Magic and Witchcraft
Chapter 15 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Sentence Pronounced against Galileo (1633)
Contrasting Views: Political Authority and Religion: What Happened When Subjects Held Different Beliefs?
Terms of History: Scientific Revolution
Environment Matters: Dutch Canals
Absolutism, Constitutionalism, and the Search for Order, 1640–1700
Louis XIV: Absolutism and Its Limits
The Fronde, 1648–1653 ■ Court Culture as an Element of Absolutism ■ Enforcing Religious Orthodoxy ■ Extending State Authority at Home and Abroad
Constitutionalism in England
England Turned Upside Down, 1642–1660 ■ Restoration and Revolution Again
■ Social Contract Theory: Hobbes and Locke
Outposts of Constitutionalism
The Dutch Republic ■ Freedom and Slavery in the New World
Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe
Poland-Lithuania Overwhelmed ■ Brandenburg-Prussia: Militaristic Absolutism ■ An Uneasy Balance: Austrian Habsburgs and Ottoman Turks ■ Russia: Setting the Foundations of Bureaucratic Absolutism
The Search for Order in Elite and Popular Culture
Freedom and Constraint in the Arts and Sciences ■ Women and Manners ■ Reforming Popular Culture
Chapter 16 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Louis XIV, Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685)
Contrasting Views: The English Civil War
Terms of History: Absolutism
Environment Matters: Great Fire of London, 1666
The Atlantic System and Its Consequences, 1700–1750
The Atlantic System and the World Economy
Slavery and the Atlantic System ■ World Trade and Settlement ■ The Birth of Consumer Society
New Social and Cultural Patterns
Agricultural Revolution ■ Social Life in the Cities ■ New Tastes in the Arts ■ Religious Revivals
Consolidation of the European State System
A New Power Alignment ■ British Rise and Dutch Decline ■ Russia’s Emergence as a European Power ■ Continuing Dynastic Struggles ■ The Power of Diplomacy and the Importance of Population
The Birth of the Enlightenment
Popularization of Science and Challenges to Religion ■ Travel Literature and the Challenge to Custom and Tradition ■ Raising the Woman Question
Chapter 17 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Montesquieu, Persian Letters: Letter 37 (1721)
Contrasting Views: Peter the Great of Russia
Terms of History: Progress
Environment Matters: The Building of St. Petersburg
Glossary of Key Terms G-1
About the Authors