Written directly for high school students, by those who understand the common struggles of the course the most (your teachers!), *Statistics and Probability with Applications* strives to make learning engaging enough to keep you on track in the course. Through lively real-life examples, youll learn how you can use statistics in your future academic endeavors as well as any career out there.

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## Table of Contents

Acknowledgments

To the Student

Chapter 1 Analyzing One-Variable Data

Lesson 1.1 Statistics: The Science and Art of Data

Lesson 1.2 Displaying Categorical Data

Lesson 1.3 Displaying Quantitative Data: Dotplots

Lesson 1.4 Displaying Quantitative Data: Stemplots

Lesson 1.5 Displaying Quantitative Data: Histograms

Lesson 1.6 Measuring Center

Lesson 1.7 Measuring Variability

Lesson 1.8 Summarizing Quantitative Data: Boxplots and Outliers

Chapter 2 Modeling One-Variable Quantitative Data

Lesson 2.1 Describing Location in a Distribution

Lesson 2.2 Transforming Data

Lesson 2.3 Density Curves and the Normal Distribution

Lesson 2.4 The Empirical Rule and Assessing Normality

Lesson 2.5 Normal Distributions: Finding Areas from Values

Lesson 2.6 Normal Distributions: Finding Values from Areas

Chapter 3 Analyzing Two-Variable Data

Lesson 3.1 Relationships Between Two Categorical Variables

Lesson 3.2 Relationships Between Two Quantitative Variables

Lesson 3.3 Correlation

Lesson 3.4 More about Correlation

Lesson 3.5 Regression Lines

Lesson 3.6 The Least-Squares Regression Line

Lesson 3.7 Assessing a Regression Model

Chapter 4 Collecting Data

Lesson 4.1 Introduction to Data Collection

Lesson 4.2 Sampling: Good and Bad

Lesson 4.3 Sampling and Surveys

Lesson 4.4 Inference for Sampling

Lesson 4.5 Observational Studies and Experiments

Lesson 4.6 How to Experiment Well

Lesson 4.7 Inference for Experiments

Lesson 4.8 Using Studies Wisely

Chapter 5 Probability

Lesson 5.1 Randomness, Probability, and Simulation

Lesson 5.2 Basic Probability Rules

Lesson 5.3 Two-Way Tables and Venn Diagrams

Lesson 5.4 Conditional Probability and Independence

Lesson 5.5 The General Multiplication Rule and Tree Diagrams

Lesson 5.6 The Multiplication Rule for Independent Events

Lesson 5.7 The Multiplication Counting Principle and Permutations

Lesson 5.8 Combinations and Probability

Chapter 6 Random Variables

Lesson 6.1 Two Types of Random Variables

Lesson 6.2 Analyzing Discrete Random Variables

Lesson 6.3 Binomial Random Variables

Lesson 6.4 Analyzing Binomial Random Variables

Lesson 6.5 Normal Approximation to Binomial Distributions

Chapter 7 Sampling Distributions

Lesson 7.1 What Is a Sampling Distribution?

Lesson 7.2 Sampling Distributions: Center and Variability

Lesson 7.3 The Sampling Distribution of a Sample Proportion

Lesson 7.4 The Sampling Distribution of a Sample Mean

Lesson 7.5 The Central Limit Theorem

Chapter 8 Estimating a Parameter

Lesson 8.1 The Idea of a Confidence Interval

Lesson 8.2 What Affects the Margin of Error?

Lesson 8.3 Estimating a Proportion

Lesson 8.4 Confidence Intervals for a Proportion

Lesson 8.5 Estimating a Mean

Lesson 8.6 Confidence Intervals for a Mean

Chapter 9 Testing a Claim

Lesson 9.1 The Idea of a Significance Test

Lesson 9.2 Significance Tests and Decision Making

Lesson 9.3 Testing a Claim about a Proportion

Lesson 9.4 Significance Tests for a Proportion

Lesson 9.5 Testing a Claim about a Mean

Lesson 9.6 Significance Tests for a Mean

Chapter 10 Comparing Two Populations or Treatments

Lesson 10.1 Estimating a Difference Between Two Proportions

Lesson 10.2 Testing a Claim about a Difference Between Two Proportions

Lesson 10.3 Estimating a Difference Between Two Means

Lesson 10.4 Testing a Claim about a Difference Between Two Means

Lesson 10.5 Paired Data: Estimating a Mean Difference

Lesson 10.6 Paired Data: Testing a Claim about a Mean Difference

Chapter 11 Inference for Distributions and Relationships

Lesson 11.1 Testing the Distribution of a Categorical Variable

Lesson 11.2 Chi-Square Tests for Goodness of Fit

Lesson 11.3 Testing the Relationship Between Two Categorical Variables

Lesson 11.4 Chi-Square Tests for Association

Lesson 11.5 Estimating the Slope of a Least-Squares Regression Line

Lesson 11.6 Testing a Claim about the Slope of a Least-Squares Regression Line