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Third EditionDan O'Hair; Mary Wiemann; Dorothy Mullin; Jason Teven©2015
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Real Communication uses stories from real people and the world around us as the foundation for the liveliest introduction to human communication available today. Professors and students alike have fallen in love with Real Communication's down-to-earth writing style, its current scholarship, and its wealth of learning and teaching tools. They also appreciate how Real Communication strives to weave together the discipline's different strands with CONNECT, a feature that shows students how to apply concepts across interpersonal, small group, and public speaking contexts.
In this edition, Real Communication matches cutting-edge content with powerful digital tools accessible through LaunchPad. The authors have revised all chapters to include new scholarship, updated and realistic examples, a new focus on communication skills on the job, and even more on communication using emerging technologies an adaptive quizzing program and a host of videos that exemplify communication concepts.
Table of Contents
What About You? Assessing Your Competence Real Communicator: Vicky Sands Modeling Communication The Linear Model The Interaction Model The Competent Communication Model Evaluating Communication Ethics: Friends with MoneyCommunication Across Cultures: Judging Sex and Gender The Study of Communication Real Reference: A Study Tool
2. Perceiving the Self and Others Perception: Making Sense of Your World Schemas: Organizing Perceptions Attributions: Interpreting Your Perceptions Improving Your Perceptions Perception in a Diverse World The Cultural Context Communication Across Cultures: Perceptions of Hair Color: A Gray AreaPerceptual Barriers Cognitions About Ourselves What About You? Need for Cognition Scale Self-Concept: Who You Think You Are Self-Esteem: How You Feel About Yourself Evaluating Communication Ethics: Ethics and the Self-ConceptSelf-Efficacy: Assessing Your Own Abilities Real Communicator: Lisa Turay Assessing Our Perceptions of Self Behavior: Managing Our Identities Self-Presentation Self-Disclosure Technology: Managing the Self and Perceptions Wired for Communication: Avatars: Virtual Personas and PerceptionReal Reference: A Study Tool
3. Verbal Communication The Nature of Language Language Is Symbolic Thought Informs Language Language Is Ruled by Grammar Language Is Bound by Context The Functions of Language Using Language as a Means of Control Using Language to Share Information Using Language to Express Feelings Using Language to Express Creativity Using Language as Ritual Language and Meaning Words Have Multiple MeaningsAbstractionGroup Identities and MeaningWired for Communication: Speaking in CodeProblems with Language Hateful and Hurtful Language LabelingEvaluating Communication Ethics: RProfanity and Civility Communication Across Cultures: Teaching TwainLanguage in Context The Relational Context The Situational Context Real Communicator: Matt BurgessThe Cultural Context Mediated Contexts What About You? Beliefs about Real Reference: A Study Tool
4. Nonverbal Communication The Nature of Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Behavior Is Communicative Nonverbal Communication Is Often Spontaneous and Unintentional Nonverbal Communication Is Ambiguous Nonverbal Communication Is More Believable Than Verbal Communication Functions of Nonverbal Communication Reinforcing Verbal Messages Substituting Verbal Messages Contradicting Verbal Messages Managing Impressions and Regulating Interactions Creating Immediacy What About You? Nonverbal Immediacy Scale Deceiving Others Nonverbal Communication Codes Real Communicator: Octavia SpencerGestures and Body Movements Facial Expressions Eye Behavior Voice Physical Appearance Communication Across Cultures: What Nurses WearEvaluating Communication Ethics: The Job Killer TatSpace and Environment Touch Time Orientation Influences on Nonverbal Communication Culture and Nonverbal Communication Mediated Nonverbal Communication Wired for Communication: War Games Without Weapons, Sometimes Without WordsThe Situational Context Real Reference: A Study Tool
5. Communication and Culture Understanding Culture Culture Is Learned Culture Affects Communication Intercultural Communication Matters Communication and Cultural Variations High- and Low-Context Cultures Collectivist and Individualist Orientations Comfort with Uncertainty Masculine and Feminine Orientations Approaches to Power Distance Time Orientation Value of Emotional Expression What About You? Cultural Values Assessment Understanding Group Affiliations Co-Cultural Communication Wired for Communication: Online Gamers: Women are Hardcore, TooSocial Identity and Intergroup Communication Communication Across Cultures: The It Gets Better ProjectIntercultural Communication Challenges Anxiety Ethnocentrism Discrimination Improving Intercultural Communication Be Mindful Desire to Learn Overcome Intergroup Biases Accommodate Appropriately Evaluating Communication Ethics: ThatPractice Your Skills Real Reference: A Study Tool
6. Listening How We Listen The Listening Process Personal Listening Preferences Why We Listen Meeting Listening Goals The Value of Listening Well Listening Challenges Environmental Factors Hearing and Processing Challenges Multitasking Boredom and Overexcitement Attitudes About Listening Unethical Listening Behaviors What About You? Your Listening Apprehension Listening in Context The Relational and Situational Listening Contexts The Cultural Listening Context The Technology Listening Context Real Reference: A Study Tool Part Two Interpersonal Communication 7. Developing and Maintaining Relationships Types of Interpersonal Relationships Family Friendship Romantic Relationships Online Relationships Why We Form Relationships Functions of Relationships Interpersonal Attraction Managing Relationship Dynamics Costs and Rewards What About You? Determining Your Own Costs and Rewards Reducing Uncertainty Dialectical Tensions Self-Disclosure and Interpersonal Relationships Social Penetration Theory Communication Privacy Management Strategic Topic Avoidance Stages of a Relationship Initiating Stage Exploratory Stage Intensification Stage Stable Stage Declining Stage Relationship Repair Termination Stage Reconciliation Real Reference: A Study Tool
8. Managing Conflict in Relationships Understanding Conflict Unproductive Conflict Productive Conflict Conflict Triggers Inaccurate Perceptions Incompatible Goals Unbalanced Costs and Rewards Provocation Factors Affecting Conflict Power Dynamics Attitudes Toward Conflict Communication Across Cultures: Culture of Nonviolence Communication Climate Culture and Conflict Communication Channel Online Anonymity and Conflict Strategies for Managing Conflict Escapist Strategies Challenging Strategies Cooperative Strategies Real Communicator: Anonymous What About You? Hitting Above and Below the Belt Conflict Outcomes Compromise Win-Win Lose-Lose Separation Allocation of Power Real Reference: A Study Tool Part Three Group Communication 9. Communicating in Groups Understanding Groups Characteristics of Groups Group Types Group Development Group Size and Communication Size and Complexity Size and the Formation of Cliques Group Size and Social Loafing Group Networks Understanding Group Roles Task Roles Social Roles Antigroup Roles Role Conflict Additional Factors Affecting Group Communication Cohesion Groupthink Norms Clarity of Goals Individual Differences What About You? How Well Do You Interact in a Group Setting? Real Reference: A Study Tool
10. Leadership and Decision Making in Groups Understanding Group Leadership Five Sources of Power Shared Leadership Leadership Styles What About You? What Type of Leader Are You? Competence and Ethics Culture and Group Leadership Gender and Leadership Context and Power Distance Decision Making in Groups Forces That Shape a Group The Problem-Solving Process Leadership in Meetings Planning Meetings Effectively Managing Meetings Effectively Real Communicator: Jim Simons Using Technology in Meetings Evaluating Group Performance Informational Considerations Procedural Effectiveness Interpersonal Performance Real Reference: A Study Tool Part Four Public Speaking11. Preparing and Researching Presentations The Power of Public Speaking Clarifying the General Purpose of Your Speech Communication Across Cultures: Private Pain and Public Speaking Informative Speeches Sample Speech .: Franklin D. Roosevelt, Fireside Chat on the Bank Crisis Persuasive Speeches Sample Speech .: Ricky Martin, Speech at the Vienna Forum Special-Occasion Speeches Sample Speech .: Bruce Springsteen, U Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Induction Analyzing Your Audience Considering Audience Expectations and Situational Factors Considering Audience Demographics Real Communicator: Amy Talluto Wired for Communication: In a Click, Lectures Become Interactive Anticipating Your Audience Choosing Your Topic Finding a Topic That Intrigues You Brainstorming and Clustering Narrowing Your Topic Determining the Specific Purpose of Your Speech Developing a Thesis Statement Researching the Topic Types of Information to Consider Researching Supporting Material Evaluating Supporting Material What About You? Assessing Your Sources Ethical Speaking: Taking Responsibility for Your Speech Recognizing Plagiarism Taking Accurate Notes Evaluating Communication Ethics: Plagiarism: Intentional or Unintentional? Speaking Ethically and Responsibly Real Reference: A Study Tool
12. Organizing, Writing, and Outlining Presentations Organizing Your Speech Points Identifying Your Main Points Supporting Your Main Points Arranging Your Points Evaluating Communication Ethics: The Ethics of Using Research Connecting Your Points Communication Across Cultures: Evidence, Popular Culture, and the CSI Effect Using Language That Works Respect Your Audience Keep It Simple Use Vivid Language Incorporate Repetition, Allusion, and Comparisons Sample Speech .: Sojourner Truth, Aint I a Woman? Writing a Strong Introduction Capture Your Audience Introduce Your Purpose and Topic Preview Your Main Points Connect with Your Audience Writing a Strong Conclusion Signal the End Reinforce Your Topic, Purpose, and Main Points Make an Impact Challenge the Audience to Respond Outlining Your Speech Essentials of Outlining Styles of Outlines From Preparation Outline to Speaking Outline What About You? Assessing Your Outline Sample Speech Outline: From Preparation Outline to Speaking OutlineReal Reference: A Study Tool
13. Delivering Presentations Understanding and Addressing Anxiety Identifying Anxiety Triggers Building Your Confidence Methods of Delivery Speaking from Manuscript Speaking from Memory Speaking Spontaneously Speaking Extemporaneously Guidelines for Effective Delivery Effective Vocal Delivery Effective Visual Delivery Connecting with Your Audience Real Communicator: Anna Capps Effective Presentation Aids The Function of Presentation Aids Types of Presentational Aids Practicing Your Speech Remember Your Speaking Outline Practice Using Presentation Aids What About You? Assessing Your Practice Session Simulate the Situation Practice Your Delivery Real Reference: A Study Tool
14. Informative Speaking The Goals of Informative Speaking Meeting the Audience Informing, Not Persuading Speaking Appropriately and Ethically Topics for Informative Presentations People Places Objects and Phenomena Events Processes Concepts Issues Plans and Policies Approaches to Conveying Information Description Demonstration Definition Explanation Guidelines for Informative Speeches Create Information Hunger Make It Easy What About You? Assessing Your Informative Speech Sample Student Informative Speech .: Zachary Dominque, The History and Sport of Mountain Biking Real Reference: A Study Tool
15. Persuasive Speaking The Goals of Persuasive Speaking Developing a Persuasive Topic and Thesis Propositions of Fact Propositions of Value Propositions of Policy Persuading Your Audience Understanding Your Audience Understanding Your Audience Understanding What Is Relevant to Your Audience Strategies for Persuasive Speaking Ethos Logos Pathos Logical Fallacies Organizing Patterns in Persuasive Speaking Problem-Solution Pattern Refutational Organizational Pattern Comparative Advantage Pattern Monroe What About You? Assessing Your Persuasive Speech Sample Student Persuasive Speech .: Una Chua, Preventing Cyberbullying Real Reference: A Study Tool
Appendix A Competent Interviewing The Nature of Interviews Types of Interviews The Information-Gathering Interview The Appraisal Interview The Problem-Solving Interview The Exit Interview The Persuasive Interview The Service-Oriented Interview The Selection Interview
The Format of an Interview The Opening The Questions The Conclusion
Understanding Roles and Responsibilities in Interviews Roles and Responsibilities of the Interviewer Roles and Responsibilities of the Interviewee
The Job Interview Getting the Interview During the Interview What About You? Your Career Preparation Real Reference: A Study Tool Appendix B Understanding Mass and Mediated CommunicationThe Nature of MediaDefining Mass and Mediated CommunicationsThe Pervasiveness of MediaUnderstanding Media MessagesThe Business of MediaFree Speech and Media Bias
Effects of Mass MediaSelectivity and the Active AudienceInfluences on Attitudes and BehaviorsConverging Media TechnologiesDemocratic and Social ParticipationBarriers to Participation
Becoming a More Mindful Media ConsumerMonitor Your Media Use and Exposure Consider the Source of Media MessagesBe Aware of Media EffectsUnderstand the Grammar of MediaActively Evaluate Media MessagesWhat About You? Your Media DietReal Reference: A Study Tool