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English East India Company at the Height of Mughal Expansion
First EditionMargaret R. Hunt; Philip J. Stern©2016
This book captures a moment when the competing ambitions of the Mughal Empire and the English East India Company brought them into armed conflict. The central document is a previously unpublished diary by an English officer who participated in the 1689 Siege of Bombay, a sixteen-month battle between English and Mughal-allied forces, which devastated the island and threatened the very foundations of English empire in western India, almost before it even began. Revealing much about seventeenth-century warfare and social relations, the diary and the two dozen related documents collected by the editors deliver new insights into encounters not only between the Mughals and the English but among a number of competing South Asian and European companies, states, and empires as they sought political and economic power in the Indian Ocean world. The introduction provides the broad historical context for the siege, and students are supported by document headnotes, gloss notes, a chronology, questions for consideration, and a bibliography.
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Table of Contents
PART ONEINTRODUCTION: The 1689 Siege of Bombay in Global Historical PerspectiveThe New Global HistoryMughal Expansion and the English Acquisition of BombayThe Siege of BombayMaking Peace and the Emperor's FarmanThe Outcry in England and the Campaign to Abolish the East India CompanyJames Hilton and His DiaryConclusion
PART TWO The Siege of Bombay: A Soldier’s DiaryJames Hilton, Diary of the Siege of Bombay, 15 February 1689 to 22 June 1690
PART THREERelated Documents1. The East India Company on the West Coast of India1. John Ovington, The Great Rival to Bombay: The Port of Surat and Indian Ocean Trade, 16892. Charter Granted by Charles II to the East India Company Confirming and Extending Their Former Charters, 3 April 1661 3. Patents from Charles II of the Port and Island of Bombay, 27 March 1669 4. Patents from James II Extending Jurisdiction of Prize Courts in the East Indies, 12 April 16862. Mughal Expansion under the Emperor Aurangzeb5. Ishwar das Nagar, Modes of Siege Warfare —and Restoring Order Afterwards, 1688 6. Capture of Orchha, 1635 7. The Emperor Aurangzeb at a Chishti Shrine, 1670s 3. Sidi Yaqut Khan and Rising Tension in Bombay 8. Khafi Khan, On Sidi Yaqut, 1670s-1680s9. Conflicts between Sidi Yaqut’s Men and the Soldiers of the Bombay Garrison, 16834. Company Plans for War 10. East India Company, A Fleet of Warlike Ships: Secret Instructions for War, 168611. Bartholemew Harris, Diplomatic Overtures between Surat and the Company, 1687 12. East India Company, Letter to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, 1688 5. Other Experiences of the Siege13. Alexander Hamilton, A More Critical View of the Siege, 1689-169014. The Governor and Council of Bombay, Letter to London about the Siege, 168915. John Stevens alias Abd-al Allah, Conversion to Islam while at the Sidi’s Camp, 16896. The Quest for Peace16. The Company’s Response to Mukhtiar Khan, A Peace Proposal from Surat, 168917. George Weldon, Barker Hibbins, Abraham Navarro, Qazi Ibrahim and Mir Nazim, Peace Negotiations between the Company and the Surat Merchants, July 1689 to February 169018. The Emperor Aurangzeb, Declaring a Peace? The Imperial Farman, 169019. John Vauxe, An East India Company Hostage Reflects Back upon the Siege, 16917. The Company’s War: Defenders, Critics, Petitioners 20. Josiah Child, In Defense of the Company’s War, 168921. The Great Oppressions and Injuries which the Managers of the East India Company have Acted on the Lives, Liberties and Estates of their Fellow Subjects And Injustice Done to the Natives in Sundry Parts of India, 1691 22. Edith Holloway and others, A Petition to the House of Commons by Widows of East India Company Sailors, 169323. Sheikh Mahmud Hosson, Mulla Abdul Ghafur and Others, Surat Merchants, Clerics and Port Officials Petition against the East India Company, 17008. The Legacy and Memory of the Siege of Bombay24. Khafi Khan, English Pirate Attacks and Continuing Tension between the Company and the Mughal Empire, 169425. John Burnell, Bombay Twenty Years after the Siege, 1710
APPENDIXESA Chronology of The Siege of Bombay (1600-1709)Questions for ConsiderationSelected BibliographyIndex